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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0527    [Accepted] Published online January 14, 2021.
Effects of bamboo leaf extract on the production performance, rumen fermentation parameters, and rumen bacterial communities of heat-stressed dairy cows
Yi Li1  , Luoyun Fang1  , Fuguang Xue2  , Shengyong Mao3  , Benhai Xiong4  , Zhu Ma5,*  , Linshu Jiang1,* 
1Beijing Key Laboratory for Dairy Cow Nutrition, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing, 102206, China
2Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition/Engineering Research Center of Feed Development, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 330045, China
3Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Nutrition and Animal Health, Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
4State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, China
5Beijing Dairy Cattle Center, Beijing, 100085, China
Correspondence:  Zhu Ma, Tel: +86-10-80796368, Fax: +86-10-80798091, Email: jls@bac.edu.cn
Linshu Jiang, Tel: +86-10-80796368, Fax: +86-10-80798091, Email: jls@bac.edu.cn
Received: 28 July 2020   • Revised: 29 October 2020   • Accepted: 28 July 2020
Abstract
Objective
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of bamboo leaf extract on the production performance, rumen fermentation parameters, and rumen bacterial communities of heat-stressed dairy cows.
Methods
The experiment comprised a 14-day adaptation period and a 21-day experimental period and was conducted in a high-temperature and humidity environment (daily mean ambient temperature = 33.5±1.3℃; daily mean relative humidity = 64.9±0.8%, daily mean temperature-humidity index = 86.2±0.4). Twelve Holstein dairy cows were randomly allocated into two groups. A total mixed ration (TMR) supplemented with bamboo leaf extract at 0 (CON) and 1.3 g/kg dry matter (BLE) were fed, respectively. Feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily. Milk samples were collected on 1, 11 and 21d of the experimental period to analyze milk performance. Rumen fluid samples were collected on 21d of the experimental period to analyze rumen fermentation parameters and rumen bacterial communities.
Results
Compared with the control group, supplementation of bamboo leaf extract increased milk yield (p<0.01), milk fat yield (p=0.04), 4% fat-corrected milk (p<0.01) and milk fat content (p<0.01); reduced somatic cell count (p<0.01). No differences in dry matter intake and milk protein or lactose content were observed between two groups. Supplementation of bamboo leaf extract also increased the rumen total volatile fatty acid (p<0.01), acetate (p<0.01), butyrate (p<0.01), and valerate (p=0.05) concentrations. However, no significant effects were observed on rumen pH, ammonia nitrogen, propionate, acetate/propionate ratio, isobutyrate, or isovalerate. Furthermore, bamboo leaf extract increased the rumen bacterial abundance and the diversity of the rumen bacterial community. Bamboo leaf extract reduced the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes abundance ratio and increased the abundances of Butyrivibrio_2 (p<0.01) and Ruminococcus_2 (p<0.01).
Conclusion
Bamboo leaf extract supplementation at 1.3 g/kg DM could improve production performance and rumen fermentation in dairy cows during heat stress.
Keywords: Bamboo Leaf Extract; Dairy Cows; Heat Stress; Production Performance; Rumen Fermentation; Rumen Bacterial Communities


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