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Last revised January 1, 2021

Animal Bioscience (AB) is the official journal of the Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP). Anyone who would like to submit a manuscript is advised to carefully read the aims and scope section of this journal. Manuscripts submitted to AB should be prepared according to the following instructions. For issues not addressed in these instructions, the author is referred to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) “Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals” (http://www.icmje.org).


Animal Bioscience aims to publish original and cutting-edge research results and reviews on animal-related aspects of the life sciences. Emphasis will be placed on studies involving farm animals such as cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and poultry.
AB will encompass all areas of animal production and fundamental aspects of animal sciences: breeding and genetics, reproduction and physiology, nutrition, dairy and meat science, biotechnology, behavior, health, welfare and livestock farming systems.
AB is subdivided into 10 sections.

  • Animal Breeding and Genetics: quantitative and molecular genetics, genomics, genetic evaluation, evolution of domestic animals, and bioinformatics
  • Animal Reproduction and Physiology: physiology of reproduction, development, growth, lactation, and exercise; and gamete biology
  • Ruminant Nutrition and Forage Utilization: rumen microbiology and function, ruminant nutrition, physiology and metabolism, and forage utilization
  • Swine Nutrition and Feed Technology: swine nutrition and physiology; evaluation of feeds, feed additives, and feed processing technology
  • Poultry and Laboratory Animal Nutrition: nutrition and physiology of poultry and other non-ruminant animals
  • Animal Products: dairy and meat science, muscle biology, food safety, food security, and functional foods
  • Animal Biotechnology: molecular nutrition, transgenic animals, identification and manipulation of genes
  • Animal Health: immune modulation, nutritional immunology, infection and immunity, stress responses, vaccines and therapeutics
  • Animal Behavior and Welfare: social and sexual behavior and animal welfare
  • Environment and Management: livestock waste management, livestock and environment, and livestock farming system


The Animal Bioscience accepts a submission of a manuscript that has been uploaded in a non-peer reviewed preprint server with Digital Object Identifier (DOI) assignment. A preprint is a draft version of a manuscript made available online before or at a submission stage to the peer-review-based journal. Authors should follow the guidelines below to submit a preprinted manuscript to the Animal Bioscience:

  • - Authors should provide information of a preprint including DOI and licensing to the editorial office when submitting a manuscript to the Animal Bioscience.
  • - Once the manuscript is accepted, at the [in editing] stage in the Animal Bioscience, authors should update the preprint record with the Animal Bioscience publication reference information including the DOI and URL link provided by the Animal Bioscience.


A submitted manuscript, when published, will become the property of the journal. Copyrights of all published materials are owned by AAAP. The Creative Commons Attribution License available from: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ is also in effect.


The journal adheres to the ethical guidelines for research and publication described in the Guidelines on Good Publication (http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) and the ICMJE Guidelines (http://www.icmje.org).

1. Authorship

Authorship credit should be based on (1) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, and/or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; (3) final approval of the version to be published; and (4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Every author should meet all of these four conditions. After the initial submission of a manuscript, any changes whatsoever in authorship (adding author(s), deleting author(s), or re-arranging the order of authors) must be explained by a letter to the editor from the authors concerned. This letter must be signed by all authors of the paper. Copyright assignment must also be completed by every author.

  • Corresponding author and first author: AB allows a multiple corresponding authorship (maximum two) for one article. Only one author should correspond with the editorial office for one article. AB accepts notice of equal contribution for the first author when the study was clearly performed by co-first authors (maximum two).
  • Correction of authorship after publication: AB does not correct authorship after final acceptance unless a mistake has been made by the editorial staff. Authorship may be changed before final acceptance when the authorship correction is requested by all of the authors involved with the manuscript.

2. Scientific Misconduct

The authors should be responsible for the credibility of all allegations of scientific misconduct, e.g., suspected fabrication or falsification of data, double publication, or plagiarism. Submitted manuscripts must not have been previously published and not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. No part of the accepted manuscript should be duplicated in any other scientific journal without the permission of the editorial board of AB. Submitted manuscripts are screened for possible plagiarism or duplicate publication by CrossCheck upon receipt by the journal. If plagiarism or duplicate publication is detected, the manuscripts may be rejected, the incident will be announced in the AB, and their institutions may be informed. There will also be penalties imposed by AB ethics committee (see Ethics committee).

With any allegation raised by the reviewers, readers or the third party, Editor-in-Chief together with the AB ethics committee will first attempt to address the matter with the corresponding author(s). In case this fails to resolve the situation satisfactorily, the Editor-in-Chief will contact the institution of the corresponding author to request an investigation; the Editor-in-Chief may also contact the coauthors and/or the funder(s) of the published research.

It is the responsibility of the authors to request permission from the appropriate authority for any material that is being reproduced. This requirement applies to text, figures, tables, and audio and/or video.

3. Secondary Publication

It is possible to republish manuscripts if they satisfy the conditions of secondary publication of the ICMJE Recommendations (http://www.icmje.org/urm_main.html).

4. Conflict of Interest Statement

The corresponding author must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the authors’ interpretation of the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest are financial support from or connections to companies, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. In particular, all sources of funding applicable to the study should be explicitly stated.

5. Care and Use of Animals

When conducting experiments on animals, authors should adhere to the local or national requirements for the care and use of laboratory animals. All animal experiments should be reviewed by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of the organization at which the experiment was carried out. The manuscript must include the statement of IACUC compliance that should appear as the first item in the Methods section. If necessary, the editor or reviewers may request copy of the document to resolve the questions about IACUC approval and its related issues. AB retains the right to reject any manuscript on the basis of unethical or misconduct of animal studies. It is also recommended that the sex of animals and, if any, influence or association of sex on the results of the study should be described.

6. Publication Misconduct

When the AB faces suspected cases of research and publication misconduct such as redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fraudulent or fabricated data, undisclosed conflict of interest (CoI), ethical problems with a submitted (or published) manuscript, the AB will follow the flowcharts provided by the Committee on Publication Ethics (http://publicationethics.org/resources/flowcharts). The discussion and decision on the suspected cases will be carried out by ethics committee of AB.

7. Retain Original Data

Authors are expected to retain the original, raw data presented in a published article for the length of time required by the authors’ funding source or institution; in case the institution or funding source does not have the policy for data retention, all the original and raw data should be kept for at least 6 years after publication of the article. The AB reserves the right to alter this time limit in extenuating circumstances.


1. Submission

All manuscripts should be submitted via the AB e-submission system (http://submit.animbiosci.org). If there are difficulties, authors should contact the editorial office (http://submit.animbiosci.org/community/contact).

2. Peer Review/Revision Process

The suitability of papers for publication in AB is judged by the members of the editorial board. The editor-in-chief has full responsibility for the papers submitted, which are evaluated in the order received. At the initial stage, the editor-in-chief may ask the associate editors to evaluate submitted papers for suitability for further review. Each paper that is deemed suitable will be evaluated by at least two members of the editorial board or other scientifically qualified reviewers. The editor-in-chief handles all correspondence with the author and makes the final decision as to whether the paper is recommended for acceptance or rejection, or needs to be returned to the author for revision.

A reviewer may not be from the same institution as the author. Reviewers should examine the paper and return it with their report to the editor-in-chief as soon as possible, usually within 3 weeks. The identity and the report of the reviewers are made known to the editor-in-chief, but only the anonymous report is routinely sent to the author. The anonymity of the reviewers is preserved unless it is desired otherwise by all parties involved.

The reviewer recommends acceptance, acceptance after revision, resubmission after revision, or rejection. If both reviewers recommend acceptance or rejection, the decision stands. When their opinions differ, then the editor-in-chief may ask a third reviewer or associate editor to decide on the acceptance or rejection of that paper. The editor-in-chief may have to decide whether to accept or reject a manuscript for which review reports are overdue if the review process has not been completed within a reasonable time frame.

Papers needing revision will be returned to the corresponding author, and the author must return the revised manuscript to the editor-in-chief within 4 weeks; otherwise, the author will be notified that the paper has been withdrawn. The editor-in-chief may send the revised manuscript to associate editors to examine whether the manuscript has been revised as suggested by the reviewers.

If a paper is not suitable for publication, the corresponding author will be notified with a statement of reasons for rejection. The author may appeal if s/he believes an erroneous or unfair judgement has been made. A letter to the editor-in-chief presenting reasons why the decision should be reconsidered will be given due consideration. Most papers that eventually are published are first returned for revision. Common reasons for requesting revision are failure to follow style and form, lack of clarity or brevity, questions of fact or theory, poor organization of tabular material, and poor English.


1. General Requirements(Also see Style Guide)

  • The manuscript must be double-spaced in Times New Roman font (size 12). All pages should be numbered consecutively in the top right hand corner, beginning with the title page.
  • The lines on all pages, including those pages for references and figure legends, must be numbered consecutively in the left margin, beginning with number one at the top of the title page. A 2.5 cm margin on both sides of the page is desirable.
  • Weights and measures must be expressed in the SI unit (metric) system and temperatures in the Celsius (centigrade) scale.
  • Please spell out all abbreviations in the first appearance in abstract, main text and tables/figure, respectively and then use abbreviations thereafter. Please refer to the List of Standard Abbreviations in Appendix 2 of Instructions for Authors for proper abbreviation of commonly used terminology.
  • Tables, double-spaced, should be as few and simple as is feasible. Each table should be on a separate sheet.
  • The legends for figures should be typed on a separate sheet. Photographs should be carefully prepared so that a clear image can be printed.
  • Manuscripts will be edited in the order received, and accepted papers will be published in the order submitted if at all possible.
  • Authors whose native language is not English are strongly encouraged to have their manuscripts proofread prior to submission.
  • Authors must declare any financial support or relationships that may pose a conflict of interest.
Manuscript preparation is different according to the publication type, including Original Articles, Reviews, Technical Notes, Editorials, Book Reviews, and Correspondence. Other types may also be negotiated with the editorial board of AB.

2. Original Articles

Original Articles are reports of basic investigations. Although there is no limitation on the length of the manuscripts, the editorial board may abridge excessive illustrations and large tables. The manuscript for an Original Article should be organized in the following sequence: title page, abstract, keywords, main text (introduction, materials and methods, results, and discussion), implications (optional), acknowledgments (optional), references, tables, and figure legends. The figures may be submitted as separate files.

1) Title page

The following items should be included on the title page: (a) the title of the manuscript, (b) author list, (c) each author’s affiliation, e-mail, and ORCID (d) the name, e-mail, and telephone number of the corresponding author, (e) when applicable, the source of any research funding and a list of where and when the study has been presented in part elsewhere.
The title of the manuscript should be typed in bold-faced print using both upper and lower case letters and set in the center of the page. Although the title should be as brief as possible, it is recommended to include the animal species involved in the research when applicable. Abbreviations are not permitted in the title.
Full names of all authors should be provided with the family name in italics. Indications of professorial rank or other professional titles should not be used. Naming an author on a paper implies that the person named is aware of the research reported and agrees with and accepts responsibility for any results or conclusions reported.
The address of the institution where the research was conducted should include the name of the institution, city, zip code, and country. If the affiliation is different from the first author, the authors should be marked “1,” “2,” “3,” and so forth in Arabic numerals, which should appear in superscript at the top right-hand corner of the author’s name and at the beginning of each affiliation.

2) Abstract

A structured abstract is required for original articles and an unstructured one for reviews papers.
The abstract, consisting of no more than 300 words, appears on a separate page following the title page. The abstract should summarize pertinent results in a brief but understandable form. A structured abstract should contain Objective (purpose/background), Methods, Results, and Conclusion sections. An unstructured abstract should be one paragraph without sections. References should never be cited in the abstract.

3) Keywords

At the end of the abstract, up to six keywords that best describe the nature of the research should be listed. The term "Keywords" should appear in bold followed by a colon. The first letter of each keyword is capitalized and keywords are separated by semicolon. Keywords should include the animal species, variables tested, and the major response criteria. Keywords must be selected from the CAB Thesaurus (available from http://www.cabi.org/cabthesaurus/).

4) Headings

The article’s major headings (Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion [or Results and Discussion], and References) appear in roman bold-faced type.
First subheadings appear at the left margin on a separate line in bold-faced print, are not followed by punctuation, and only the first word is capitalized. First subheadings are used when subsections consist of several paragraphs.
Second subheadings appear at the beginning of the first line of a paragraph. They are italicized and do not require labeling (a, b, c, etc.).


Animals, experimental design, and diet

5) Introduction

The introduction starts on a new page following the abstract. The introduction briefly justifies the research and specifies the hypotheses to be tested. Extensive discussion of relevant literature should be included in the discussion of results, not in the introduction. To minimize length and avoid redundancy, generally no more than three references should be cited to support a specific concept.

6) Materials and Method

  • All animal experiments should be reviewed by IACUC for the care and use of animals. If specimens from human subjects were used in research, the authors must certify that the approval of the research from an appropriate IRB was obtained. The manuscript must include a statement of IACUC or IRB compliance or exemption in this section.
  • A clear description or original reference is required for all biological, analytical, and statistical procedures used in the experiment. All modifications of procedures must be explained. Diets, animals (breed, sex, age, body weight, and weighing conditions [i.e., with or without restriction of feed and/or water]), surgical techniques, measurements, and statistical models should be described clearly and fully. Brand names and company names and locations for all substances and equipment referred to in the text should be included in parentheses within the text, not in footnotes.

Statistics: Biology should be emphasized, but the use of incorrect or inadequate statistical methods to analyze and interpret biological data is not acceptable. Consultation with a statistician is recommended. Statistical methods commonly used in the area of animal sciences need not be described in detail, but adequate references should be provided. The statistical model, classes, blocks, and experimental unit must be designated. Any restrictions used in estimating parameters should be defined. Reference to a statistical package without reporting the sources of variation (classes) and other salient features of the analysis, such as covariance or orthogonal contrasts, is not sufficient. A statement of the results of statistical analysis should justify the interpretations and conclusions. Please refer to the following article for statistical guideline: Guidelines for experimental design and statistical analyses in animal studies submitted for publication in the AJAS. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2018;31(9):1381-1386. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0468

7) Results

Results should be presented in tabular form when feasible. The text should explain or elaborate on the tabular data, but numbers should not be repeated extensively within the text. Sufficient data, all with some index of variation attached, should be presented to allow the readers to interpret the results of the experiment. The discussion may be combined with the results in one section if desired.

8) Discussion

The discussion, whether in a separate section or combined with the results, should interpret the results clearly and concisely in terms of biological mechanisms and should integrate with the research findings of other studies to provide the readers with a broad base for understanding whether the hypotheses tested were accepted or rejected.

9) Implications (optional)

This section, consisting of no more than 100 words in one paragraph, follows the discussion and should explain in lay terms, without abbreviations, acronyms, or citations, what the findings of this research imply for animal production and/or biology. Though some speculation is permitted, this section should also caution the reader against over-extrapolation of results. For manuscripts with direct applications, this section will consist of an interpretive summary.

10) References

In the text, references should be cited with Arabic numerals in brackets, numbered in the order cited. In the references section, the references should be numbered and listed in order of appearance in the text. The number of references is limited to 30 for original articles. All authors of a cited work should be listed if there are six or fewer authors. The first three authors should be listed followed by “et al.” if there are more than six authors. If a reference has a digital object identifier (DOI), it should be supplied. Non-published findings and personal communications should not be included in the list of references. Journals titles shall be abbreviated according to the conventional ISO abbreviations used by PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals). A short list of journal title abbreviations is provided in Appendix 1. Sample references are given below. Other types of references not described below should follow The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine).

Sample References
(Journal Articles)

  1. Seo D, Bhuiyan MS, Sultana H, Heo JM, Lee JH. Genetic diversity analysis of South and East Asian duck populations using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2016;29:471-8. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.0915
  2. Tizioto PC, Coutinho LL, Mourão GB, et al. Variation in myogenic differentiation 1 mRNA abundance is associated with beef tenderness in Nelore cattle. Anim Genet 2016 Mar 30 [Epub]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/age.12434
  3. Krehbiel CR, Cranston JJ, McCurdy MP. An upper limit for caloric density of finishing diets. J Anim Sci 2006;84 Suppl:E34-49.
  4. Mahan DC, Weaver EM, Russell LE. Improved postweaning pig performance by adding NaCl or HCl to diets containing animal plasma [abstract]. J Anim Sci 1996;74(Suppl 1):58.

(Books and Book Chapters)

  1. Field TG, Taylor RE. Scientific farm animal production: an introduction to animal science. 11th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall; 2015.
  2. Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Swine, National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of swine. 11th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2012.
  3. Latimer GW; AOAC International. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 19th ed. Gaithersburg, MD: AOAC International; 2012.
  4. Preston ND, Daszak P, Colwell RR. The human environment interface: applying ecosystem concepts to health. In: Mackenzie JS, Jeggo M, Daszak P, Richt JA, editors. One health: the human-animal-environment interfaces in emerging infectious diseases. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2013. p. 83-100. https://doi.org/10.1007/82_2013_317

(Web sites)

  1. Raosoft. Sample size calculator [Internet]. Raosoft Inc.; c2004 [cited 2016 Apr 1]. Available from: http://www.raosoft.com/samplesize.html
  2. Metagenomics: sequences from the environment [Internet]. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Biomedical Information; 2006 [cited 2016 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=metagenomics.TOC

(Dissertations and Theses)

  1. Ha JK. Studies on beneficial and adverse effects of dietary buffers for lambs [dissertation]. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University; 1981.
  2. Yoon CH. Effects of lysine and sodium levels on growth performance, acid-base balance and lysine-arginine antagonism in broiler chicks [master's thesis]. Seoul, KR: Seoul National University; 1991.

(Conference Papers)

  1. Moss KJ, Greening L. The effect of age and gender on the time taken for horses to learn an operant task. In: Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science 2009; 2009 Mar 30-Apr 1; Southport, UK. Penicuik, UK: British Society of Animal Science; 2009. p. 1.
  2. Patrias K. Computer-compatible writing and editing. Interacting with the digital environment: modern scientific publishing. 46th Annual Meeting of the Council of Science Editors; 2003 May 3-6; Pittsburgh, PA.

(Research Reports)

  1. Page E, Harney JM. Health hazard evaluation report. Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; 2001. Report No.: HETA2000-0139-2824.

11) Tables

Tables are used to present numerical data in a self-explanatory manner. They should be intelligible without consulting the text and should not duplicate data already given in the text or in illustrations. Any abbreviation used in a table must be defined in that table. Tables should be double-spaced with each table on a separate sheet. Tables should appear immediately after the references. The tables should be paginated in series with the text.
All tables should be cited in the text. Arabic numerals are used to number tables. The table number (i.e., Table 4.) is typed in bold face followed by a period. The title of the table continues on the same line with only the first letter capitalized. A period should not appear at the end of the title. Column headings should have the first letter of each word capitalized while the names of variables are to be typed with only the first letter capitalized (i.e., Average daily gain).
For numerals less than 1, a zero should be inserted to the left of the decimal point, and if possible, columns should be center- aligned. If there are no data for a particular entry, a hyphen should be inserted. If an explanation is necessary, an abbreviation can be used in the body of the table (e.g., ND) and it should be explained clearly in the footnotes.
References to footnotes in a table are to be specified by superscript numbers, independently for each table. Superscript letters are used to designate statistical significance. Use a lower case p to indicate probability values (i.e., p < 0.05).
Presentation of pooled standard errors, the general basis for statistical comparisons of means, is recommended when variance is homogeneous. These should be presented in a separate column or row. Standard errors can be attached to each mean by ± signs when variance or SE is heterogeneous (e.g., unbalanced experiments or unequal numbers of observations in treatment means). The pooled standard error is the preferred estimate of experimental error because presenting individual standard errors tends to clutter up the table.
For diet composition, major ingredient inclusion levels should be presented as a percentage of the total rather than in grams or kilograms of food.

12) Figures

Figures should be placed at the end of the manuscript with each figure on a separate page. Figure legends should be typed (double spaced) on a separate page.
Figures should fit in one column (8 cm wide), or full-page width (17 cm wide). A minimum type size of 8 points (Times New Roman) is recommended so as to be readable in the final publication size.
For tables containing multiple lines, solid, long-dash, short-dash, and dotted lines should be used, while gray or shaded lines should be avoided. Lines with different symbols for the data points may also be used to distinguish curves. Unnecessary backgrounds and grid lines should be removed from graphs. Each axis should have a description and a unit.
For bar charts, different fill patterns may be used if needed (black, white, gray, and stripes). Curves and data points should be identified using the following symbols (●, ○, ■, □, ♦, ◊, ▲, △, +, and ×). Symbols should be defined in the figure legend or in a key on the figure.
The preferred file type for figures is JPEG, TIFF, or PPT. If figures are to be reproduced in grayscale (black and white), they should be submitted as such. If figures are to appear in color in the print journal, the files must be submitted in CMYK color (not RGB). The minimum resolution is 300 dpi for color and grayscale figures, and 600 dpi for line art.
Photomicrographs must have their unmagnified size designated either in the caption or with a scale bar on the figure.
A legend should be prepared to provide sufficient information and all abbreviations, and the symbols used in the figure should be defined in the legend.

3. Other Types of Manuscripts

All other types of manuscripts should meet the abovementioned requirements. For additional requirements for other types of manuscripts, the following guidelines apply.

1) Reviews

Reviews are invited by the editor and should be comprehensive analyses of specific topics. They are to be organized in the same way as an original article with an unstructured abstract (300 words maximum). The number of references is limited to 100.

2) Technical Notes

A technical note is used to report a new method, technique, or procedure of interest to AB readers. When possible, a Technical Note should include a comparison of results from the new method with those from previous ones, using appropriate statistical tests. The advantages and disadvantages of the new procedure should be discussed.
They are to be organized in the same way as an original article with an unstructured abstract (200 words maximum). The length of the text excluding references, tables, and figures should not exceed 2,500 words. The number of references is limited to 15.

3) Editorials

Editorials are invited by the editor and should be commentaries on articles published recently in the journal. Editorial topics may include active areas of research, fresh insights, and debates in all fields considered to be of interest to AB readers. Editorials should not exceed 2,000 words, excluding references, tables, and figures. References should not exceed 5. A maximum of 3 figures including tables is allowed.

4) Book Reviews

Book Reviews are solicited by the editor. These will cover recently published books considered to be of interest to AB readers. The format is same as that of Editorials.

5) Correspondence

Correspondence (letters to the editor) may be in response to a published article, or a short, free-standing piece expressing an opinion. Correspondence should be no longer than 1,000 words of text and 5 references.
In reply: If the Correspondence is in response to a published article, the editor-in-chief may choose to invite the article’s authors to write a Correspondence Reply. Replies by authors should not exceed 1,000 words of text and 10 references.

4. Use of Numbers

The following rules address the formatting of numbers:

  • Numbers one through nine should be spelled out and numerals be used for 10 and above.
  • Arabic numerals should be used with abbreviated units of measure: 2 g, 5 d, $4.00, 3%, and numerical designations in the text: exp 1, group 3, etc.
  • Arabic numerals should be used to express times and dates: 08:00 h, 3 Sept. 1985, etc.
  • In a series using some numbers less than 10 and some more than 10, numerals should be used for all (i.e., 2 Holsteins, 6 Charolais, and 15 Friesians).
  • When writing a large number ending in several zeros that represents an approximation, a word should be used for part of the number (i.e., 1.8 million rather than 1,800,000).
  • When two numbers appear adjacent to each other, the first should be spelled out (i.e., ten 2-d-old chicks rather than 10 2-d-old chicks).
  • A sentence should not begin with a numeral. The number should be spelled out, and when possible, the sentence can be rearranged to eliminate lengthy sentence-initial numbers.
  • The 24-h clock system should be used: 09:30, 13:40, etc. Periods of time should be expressed in quantitative hours (e.g., 2 h 16 min). The terms hour (h), minute (min), second (s), and year (yr) should be abbreviated when used with a number in the text but spelled out when they are used alone.
  • A hyphen should not be used to indicate inclusiveness (e.g., 12 to 14 mg or wk 3 and 4, not 12-14 mg or wk 3-4).


1. Manuscript Corrections

Before publication, the manuscript editor may correct the manuscript such that it meets the standard publication format. The author(s) must respond within 2 days when the manuscript editor contacts the author for revisions. If the response is delayed, the manuscript’s publication may be postponed.

2. Galley Proof

The author(s) will receive the final version of the manuscript as a PDF file. Upon receipt, within 2 days, the editorial office (or printing office) must be notified of any errors found in the file. No major changes including changes to the author list will be allowed at this stage. Any errors found after this time are the responsibility of the author(s) and will have to be corrected as an erratum.


There is no submission fee. For information on article-processing charge for papers accepted for publication, see "Article Processing Charge (APC)" (http://www.animbiosci.org/authors/subscription.php).

Contact Us
Editor-in-Chief: Jong Kyu Ha, PhD
E-mail: jongha@snu.ac.kr

Editorial Office: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Room 708 Sammo Sporex, 23 Sillim-ro 59-gil, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08776, Korea
Tel: +82-2-888-6558, Fax:+82-2-888-6559
E-mail: animbiosci@gmail.com

NOTICE: These instructions to authors will be applied from the January 2017 issue.

Appendix 1. List of Abbreviations of Frequently Cited Periodicals and Journals

Full name Abbreviations
Acta Endocrinologica Acta Endocrinol
Acta Agriculturæ Scandinavica Acta Agric Scand
Advances in Applied Microbiology Adv Appl Microbiol
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry Adv Carbohydr Chem
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry Adv Carbohydr Chem Biochem
Advances in Food Research Adv Food Res
Advances in Genetics Adv Genet
Advances in Lipid Research Adv Lipid Res
Agronomy Journal Agron J
American Journal of Anatomy Am J Anat
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Am J Clin Nutr
American Journal of Clinical Pathology Am J Clin Pathol
American Journal of Human Genetics Am J Hum Genet
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Am J Obstet Gynecol
American Journal of Pathology Am J Pathol
American Journal of Physiology Am J Physiol
American Journal of Veterinary Research Am J Vet Res
Analytical Biochemistry Anal Biochem
Analytical Chemistry Anal Chem
Analytical Chemistry Anim Chem
Animal Behaviour Anim Behav
Animal Breeding Abstracts Anim Breed Abstr
Animal Feed Science and Technology Anim Feed Sci Technol
Animal Genetics Anim Genet
Animal Production Anim Prod
Animal Science Journal Anim Sci J
Annals of Human Genetics Ann Hum Genet
Annual Review of Biochemistry Annu Rev Biochem
Annual Review of Nutrition Annu Rev Nutr
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol
Annual Review of Physiology Annu Rev Physiol
Antibiotics & Chemotherapy (Northfield, Ill.) Antibiot Chemother (Northfield)
Antibiotics and Chemotherapy Antibiot Chemother (1971)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Appl Environ Microbiol
Applied Engineering in Agriculture Appl Eng Agric
Applied Microbiology Appl Microbiol
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics Arch Biochem Biophys
Animal Bioscience Anim Biosci
Australian Journal of Agricultural Research Aust J Agric Res
Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture Aust J Exp Agric
Biochemical Journal Biochem J
Biochemistry Biochemistry
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Biochem Biophys Acta
Biology of Reproduction Biol Reprod
Biometrics Biometrics
Biometrika Biometrika
Blood Blood
British Journal of Nutrition Br J Nutr
British Poultry Science Br Poult Sci
Canadian Journal of Animal Science Can J Anim Sci
Cell Cell
Cereal Chemistry Cereal Chem
Clinical Toxicology Clin Toxicol
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Comp Biochem Physiol
Domestic Animal Endocrinology Domest Anim Endocrinol
Endocrinology Endocrinology
Federation Proceedings Fed Proc
Feedstuffs Feedstuffs
Fertility and Sterility Fertil Steril
Food Research Food Res
Food Technology Food Technol
Gastroenterology Gastroenterology
Genetics Genetics
Grass and Forage Science Grass Forage Sci
Growth Growth
Gut Gut
Hormones and Behavior Horm Behav
Immunology Immunology
Infection and Immunity Infect Immun
Iranian Journal of Agricultural Research Iran J Agric Res
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chem. J Agric Food Chem
Journal of Agricultural Science J Agric Sci
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics J Anim Breed Genet
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr
Journal of Animal Science J Anim Sci
Journal of Animal Science and Technology J Anim Sci Technol
Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT J Appl Toxicol
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Journal of Clinical Investigation J Clin Invest
Journal of Dairy Science J Dairy Sci
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis J Food Compost Anal
Journal of General Physiology J Gen Physiol
Journal of Heredity J Hered
Journal of Nutrition J Nutr
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry J Nutr Biochem
Journal of Physiology J Physiol
Journal of Physiology, Paris J Physiol Paris
Journal of Range Management J Range Manage
Journal of Reproduction and Fertility J Reprod Fertil
Journal of the American oil Chemists' Society J Am Oil Chem Soc
Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (Journal of AOAC International) J Assoc Off Anal Chem
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture J Sci Food Agric
Journées de la Recherche Porcine J Rech Porcine
Korean Journal of Animal Nutrition & Feedstuffs Korean J Anim Nutr Feedstuffs
Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction Korean J Anim Reprod
Korean Journal of Animal Science Korean J Anim Sci
Korean Journal of Dairy Science Korean J Dairy Sci
Korean Journal of Nutrition Korean J Nutr
Korean Journal of Poultry Science Korean J Poult Sci
Laboratory Animals Lab Anim
Lipids Lipids
Livestock Production Science Livest Prod Sci
Meat Science Meat Sci
Metabolism Metabolism
Methods in Enzymology Methods Enzymol
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology Mol Cell Endocrinol
Nature (London) Nature (Lond)
Nature (Paris, France) Nature (Paris, France)
Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science Neth J Agric Sci
Neuroendocrinology Neuroendocrinology
New England Journal of Medicine N Engl J Med
New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research N Z J Agric Res
Nihon Kakin Gakkaishi (Japanese Poultry Science) Nippon Kakin Gakkaishi
Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews Nutr Abstr Rev
Nutrition and Metabolism Nutr Metab
Nutrition Reports International Nutr Rep Int
Nutrition Research Nutr Res
Nutrition Reviews Nutr Rev
Obstetrics and Gynecology Obstet Gynecol
Pharmacological Reviews Pharmacol Rev
Pharmacology Pharmacology
Physiological Reviews Physiol Rev
Pig News and Information Pig News Inf
Poultry Science Poult Sci
Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association Proc N Z Grassl Assoc
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society Proc Nutr Soc
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine Proc Soc Exp Biol Med
Professional Animal Scientist Prof Anim Sci
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology Q J Exp Physiol
Recent Progress in Hormone Research Recent Prog Horm Res
Reproduction, Fertility, and Development Reprod Fertil Dev
Residue Reviews Residue Rev
Science Science
Scientia Agricola Sci Agric
South African Journal of Animal Science S Afr J Anim Sci
Steroids Steroids
Theoretical and Applied Genetics Theor Appl Genet
Theriogenology Theriogenology
Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers Trans Am Soc Agric Eng
Veterinary Record Vet Rec
Veterinary Research Vet Res
Vitamins and Hormones Vitam Horm
World Animal Review World Anim Rev
World's Poultry Science Journal Worlds Poult Sci J
Zeitschrift für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie Z Tierzuecht Zuechtungsbiol
Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe A Zentralbl Veterinarmed A

Appendix 2. List of Standard Abbreviations Used in Animal Bioscience (Please spell out in the first appearance in abstract, main text and tables/figure, respectively and then use abbreviations thereafter.)

Item Unit/Term
AA amino acid(s)
ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone
ADF acid detergent fiber (assumed sequential unless designated otherwise)
ADFI average daily feed intake (not to be confused with DMI)
ADG average daily gain
ADIN acid detergent insoluble nitrogen
ADL acid detergent lignin
ADP adenosine diphosphate
AI artificial insemination
AIA acid insoluble ash
AID apparent ileal digestibility
AME apparent metabolizable energy
AMEn nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizableenrgy
AMP adenosine monophosphate
amu atomic mass unit
ANOVA analysis of variance
ARS Agricultural Research Service
Assoc. Association
atm atmosphere
ATP adenosine triphosphate
ATPase adenosine triphosphatase
Avg average (use only in tables, not in the text)
B cell bursal-derived, bursal-equivalent derived cell
BCS body condition score
BHBA β-hydroxybutyrate
BLUE best linear unbiased estimate
BLUP best linear unbiased prediction bp base pair
bp base pair
Bq becquerel
BSA bovine serum albumin
bST bovine somatotropin
Bull. Bulletin
BUN blood urea nitrogen
BW body weight (not after feed deprivation unless designated otherwise)
degree Celsius
C/EBP CAAT-enhancer biding protein
ca. circa
cal calorie
cDNA complementary deoxyribonucleic acid
cfu colony-forming unit
CI confidence interval (use only in tables and parenthetical expressions)
ci curie
CIE International Commission on Illumination (Commission Internationaled’Eclairage)
Circ Circular
CLA conjugated linoleic acid
cM centimorgan (spell out morgan if used without a prefix)
CN casein
CNS coagulase-negative staphylococci
Co-EDTA cobalt ethylenediamine- tetraacetate
CoA coenzyme A
Coll. College
Conf. Conference
Congr. Congress
CP crude protein (N×6.25)
cP centipoise
cpm counts per minute
cps counts per second
CPU central processing unit
CRD completely randomized design
cRNA complementary ribonucleic acid
cu cubic
CV coefficient of variation
D dextro-
d day
Da dalton
DCAD dietary cation-anion difference
DE digestible energy
DEAE (dimethylamino) ethyl (as in DEAE-cellulose)
df degree (s) of freedom
DFD dark, firm and dry (meat)
DHI(A) Dairy Herd Improvement (Association)
diam. diameter
DIM days in milk
DM dry matter
DMI dry matter intake
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
DNase deoxyribonuclease
dpm disintegrations/minute
e.g., for example
EBV estimated breeding value
eCG equine chorionic gonadotropin
ECM energy-corrected milk
Ed. Edition, Editor(s)
EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
EFA essential fatty acid
EIA enzymeimmunoassay
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EPD expected progenydifference
Eq equivalent
Eq equation(s)
EST expressed sequence tag
et al. et alia
ETA estimated transmitting ability
etc. et cetera
Exp. experiment (always followed by a numeral)
Ext. extension
F F-distribution (variance ratio)
FA fatty acid(s)
FCM fat corrected milk
FFA free fatty acid(s)
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone
g gravity
G:F gain-to-feed ratio
GAPDH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
GAT lutamic acid-alanine-tyrosine
GC-MS gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
GE ggross energy
GH growth hormone
GHRH growth hormone-releasing hormone
GLC gas-liquid chromatography
GLM general llinear model
GnRH gonadotropin-releasing hormone
h hour
h2 heritability (use only in tables and parenthetical expressions)
ha hectare
hCG human chorionic gonadotropin
HCW hot carcass weight
HEPES N-(2-hydroxyethyl) piperazine-N- 2-ethanesulfonic acid
HPLC high performance (pressure) liquid chromatography
HTST high temperature, short time
Hz hertz
i.d. inside diameter
i.m. intramuscular(ly)
i.p. intraperitoneal(ly)
i.v. intravenous(ly)
ICU international chick units
IU international unit
IFN interferon
Ig immunoglobulin (when used to identify a specific immunoglobulin)
IGF insulin-like growth factor
IL interleukin
IMI intramammary infection
Inst. institute
IU international unit
IVDMD in vitro dry matter disppearance
kb kilobase(s)
KB kilobyte
kg (g) kilogram (gram)
KPH kidney, pelvic, heart fat
KU klett units
l levo-
L litter
L:D hours light:hours darkness in a photoperiod
LA lactalbumin
LD50 lethal dose 50%
LG lactoglobulin
LH luteinizing hormone
LHRH luteinizing hormone- releasing hormone
LM longissimus muscle
LPS lipopolysaccharide
LSD least significant difference
LSM lease squares means (use only in tables and parenthetical expressions)
lx lux
m meter
M molar (concentration)
mAb monoclonal antibody
MAS marker-assisted selection
ME metabolizable energy
MEn nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy
MHC major histocompatibility complex
MIC minimum inhibitory concentration
min minute
Misc. miscellaneous
MJ, kJ, J mega-, kilo-, joule
mm HG millimeters of mercury
mo month
mol mole
Monogr. monograph
MP metabolizable protein
mRNA messenger ribonucleic acid
MS mean square (use only in tables and parenthetical expressions)
MUFA monounsaturated fatty acid
MUN milk urea nitrogen
N newton
N normal (concentration)
n sample size (used paren- thetically or in footnotes)
NAD nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
NADH reduced form of NAD
NADP nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
NADPH2 reduced form of NADP
NAN nonammonia nitrogen
Natl. national
NDF neutral detergent fiber
NDIN neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen
NDM nonfat dry milk
NE net energy
NEFA nonesterified fatty acid
NEg net energy for gain
NEl net energy for lactation
NEm net energy for maintenance
No. number (use only in table, not in the text)
NPN nonprotein nitrogen
NRC National research council
NS nonsignificant (use only in tables and parenthetical expressions)
NSC nonstructural carbohydrates
NSP nonstarch polysaccharide
o.d. outside diameter
OM organic matter
p probability
Pa pascal
PAGE polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PBS phosphate-buffered saline
PCR polymerase chain reaction
pfu plaque-forming units
PG prostaglandin
PGF2α prostaglandin F2α
PMNL polymorphonuclearneutrophilic leukocyte
PMSG pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin
PPAR peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
ppb parts/billion parts
ppm parts/million parts
ppt parts/trillion parts
PSE pale, soft, and exudative (meat)
PTA predicted transmitting ability
Publ. publication
PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid(s)
QTL quantitative trait locus (loci)
R multiple correlation coefficient
r simple correlation coefficient
R2 multiple coefficient of determination
r2 simple coefficient of determination
RCBD randomized completely block design
RDP ruminally degradable protein
REML restricted maximum likelihood
Rep. Report
RFLP restriction fragment length polymorphism
RH relative humidity
RIA radioimmunoassay
RNA ribonucleic acid
RNase ribonuclease
RQ respiratory quotient
rRNA ribosomal ribonucleic acid
RUP ruminallyundegradable protein
S siemens
s,sec second
s.c. subcutaneous(ly)
s2 variance (sample)
SARA subacuteruminal acidosis
SAS Statistical Analysis System
SCC somatic cell count
SCM solids-corrected milk
SCS somatic cell score
SD standard deviation (sample)
SDS sodium dodecyl sulfate
SE standard error
SEM standard error of the mean
SFA saturated fatty acid
SID standardized ileal digestibility
SNF solids-not-fat
SNP single nucleotide polymorphism
sp., spp. one species, several species
SPC standard plate count
SPC standard plate count
SRBC sheep red blood cells
SS sums of squares (use only in tables and parenthetical expressions)
SSC Susscrofa chromosome
ssp. subspecies
ST somatotropin
Sta. station
Suppl. supplement
Symp. symposium
t metric ton (1,000 kg)
t t- (or Student) distribution
T cell thymic-derived cell
TBA thiobarbituric acid
TCA trichloroacetic acid
TDN total digestible nutrients
Tech. technical
TLC thin layer chromtography
TME true metabolizable energy
TMEn nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy
TMR total mixed ration
Tris tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane
tRNA transfer ribonucleic acid
TS total solids
TSAA total sulfur amino acids
U unit
UF ultrafiltration, ultrafiltered
UHT ultra-high temperature
univ. university
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
UV ultraviolet
VFA volatile fatty acid
vol volume
vol/vol volume/volume (used only in parentheses)
vs versus
V volt
W watt
wk week
wt weight (use only in tables, not in the text)
wt/vol weight/volume (used only in parentheses)
wt/wt weight/weight (used only in parentheses)
× multiplied by or crossed with mean (sample)
yr year
α probability of Type I error
β probability of TypeⅡ error
μ mean (population)
σ standard deviation (population)
σ2 variance (population)
χ2 chi-squared distribution

Revised : September 1, 2016
Revised : March 1, 2019


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