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https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0390    [Accepted] Published online January 5, 2022.
The application of new breeding technology based on gene editing in pig industry
Ching-Fu Tu1,*  , Chin-kai Chuang1  , Tien-Shuh Yang1,2 
1Division of Animal Technology, Animal Technology Laboratories, Agricultural Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu City 30093, Taiwan
2Department of Biotechnology and Animal Science, National Ilan University, Yilan City, 26047 Taiwan
Correspondence:  Ching-Fu Tu, Tel: +886-37-585815, Fax: +886-37-585830, Email: cftu@atri.org.tw
Received: 3 September 2021   • Revised: 14 November 2021   • Accepted: 7 December 2021
Genome/gene-editing (GE) techniques, characterized by a low technological barrier, high efficiency, and broad application among organisms, are now being employed not only in medical science but also in agriculture/veterinary science. Different engineered CRISPR/Cas9s have been identified to expand the application of this technology. In pig production, GE is a precise new breeding technology (NBT), and promising outcomes in improving economic traits, such as growth, lean or healthy meat production, animal welfare, and disease resistance, have already been documented and reviewed. These promising achievements in porcine gene editing, including the Myostatin gene knockout (KO) in indigenous breeds to improve lean meat production, the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene knock-in to enhance piglet thermogenesis and survival under cold stress, the generation of GGTA1 and CMAH gene double KO pigs to produce healthy red meat, and the KO or deletion of exon 7 of the CD163 gene to confer resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, are described in the present article. Other related approaches for such purposes are also discussed. The current trend of global regulations or legislation for GE organisms is that they are exempted from classification as genetically modified organisms (GMOs) if no exogenes are integrated into the genome, according to product-based and not process-based methods. Moreover, an updated case study in the EU showed that current GMO legislation is not fit for purpose in term of NBTs, which contribute to the objectives of the EU’s Green Deal and biodiversity strategies and even meet the United Nations’ sustainable development goals for a more resilient and sustainable agri-food system. The GE pigs generated via NBT will be exempted from classification as GMOs, and their global valorization and commercialization can be foreseen.
Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9; Genome/gene-editing (GE); New Breeding Technique (NBT); Pig; Regulation
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