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Anim Biosci > Accepted Articles
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0668    [Accepted] Published online December 13, 2020.
Essential oils as growth-promoting additives on performance, nutrient digestibility, cecal microbes, and serum metabolites of broiler chickens: A meta-analysis
Agung Irawan1,4,*  , Cecep Hidayat2,4  , Anuraga Jayanegara3,4  , Adi Ratriyanto1 
1Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia
2Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi Bogor 16720, Indonesia
3Department of Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
4Animal Feed and Nutrition Modelling Research Group (AFENUE), Department of Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
Correspondence:  Agung Irawan, Tel: +62-821-4537-6027, Email: a.irawan@staff.uns.ac.id
Received: 22 September 2020   • Revised: 7 November 2020   • Accepted: 22 September 2020
Abstract
Objective
The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of dietary essential oils (EOs) on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum metabolite profiles of broiler chickens and to compare their effectiveness as growth-promoting additives against antibiotics.
Methods
Peer-reviewed articles were retrieved from Web of Science, Science Direct, PubMed, and Google scholar and selected based on pre-determined criteria. A total of 41 articles containing 55 experiments with 163 treatment units were eligible for analyses. Data were subjected to a meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology considering the doses of EOs as fixed effects and the different studies as random effects.
Results
Results showed a linear increase (p<0.001) on body weight gain (BWG) where feed conversion ratio (FCR) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased (p<0.001) linearly with an increasing dose of EOs. Positive effects were observed on the increased (p<0.01) digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), and cecal Lactobacillus while E. coli population in the cecum decreased (p<0.001) linearly. There was a quadratic effect on the weight of gizzard (p<0.01), spleen (p<0.05), bursa of fabricius (p<0.001), and liver (p<0.10) while carcass, abdominal fat, and pancreas increased (p<0.01) linearly. The dose of EOs linearly increased HDL, glucose, protein, and globulin concentrations (p<0.01). In comparison to control and antibiotics, all type of EOs significantly reduced (p<0.001) FCR and tended to increase (p<0.1) BWG and final BW. Cinnamaldehyde-compound was the only EOs type showing a tendency to increase (p<0.1) carcass weight, albumin, and protein of serum metabolites while this EOs together with EOB 1 decreased (p<0.01) E. coli population. LDL concentration decreased (p<0.05) with AB and carvacrol-based compound when compared to the control group.
Conclusion
This evidence confirms that EOs are suitable to be used as growth promoters and their economical benefit may be promising.
Keywords: Broiler; Essential Oils; Meta-analysis; Production Performance; Growth Promoter; Antibiotics


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