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Anim Biosci > Volume 34(4); 2021 > Article
Animal Breeding and Genetics
Animal Bioscience 2021;34(4): 525-532.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.20.0319    Published online August 24, 2020.
Mitochondrial DNA variation and phylogeography of Old World camels
Liang Ming1,2  , Dalai Siren1,2  , Li Yi1,2  , Le Hai1  , Jing He1  , Rimutu Ji1,2,* 
1Key Laboratory of Dairy Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Ministry of Education, College of Food Science and Engineering, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, China
2Camel Research Institute of Inner Mongolia, Alashan 737300, China
Correspondence:  Rimutu Ji, Tel: +86-137-04785544, Fax: +86-0471-4309593, Email: yeluotuo1999@vip.163.com
Received: 9 May 2020   • Revised: 7 July 2020   • Accepted: 23 July 2020
Old World camels are a valuable genetic resource for many countries around the world due to their adaptation to the desert environment. At present, Old World camels have encountered the challenge of unprecedented loss of genetic resources. Through our research, we would reveal the population structure and genetic variation in Old World camel populations, which provides a theoretical basis for understanding the germplasm resources and origin and evolution of different Old World camel populations.
In the present study, we assessed mtDNA control region sequences of 182 individuals from Old World camels to unravel genetic diversity, phylogeography, and demographic dynamics.
Thirty-two haplotypes confirmed by 54 polymorphic sites were identified in the 156 sequences, which included 129 domestic and 27 wild Bactrian camels. Meanwhile, 14 haplotypes were defined by 47 polymorphic sites from 26 sequences in the dromedaries. The wild Bactrian camel population showed the lowest haplotype and nucleotide diversity, while the dromedaries investigated had the highest. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that there are several shared haplotypes in different Bactrian camel populations, and that there has been genetic introgression between domestic Bactrian camels and dromedaries. In addition, positive values of Tajima’s D and Fu’s Fs test demonstrated a decrease in population size and/or balancing selection in the wild Bactrian camel population. In contrast, the negative values of Tajima’s D and Fu’s Fs test in East Asian Bactrian camel populations explained the demographic expansion and/or positive selection.
In summary, we report novel information regarding the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic dynamics of Old World camels. The findings obtained from the present study reveal that abundant genetic diversity occurs in domestic Bactrian camel populations and dromedaries, while there are low levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity in the wild Bactrian camel population.
Keywords: Bactrian Camel; Dromedary; Haplotypes; Genetic Diversity; Population Expansion

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