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Review Paper
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 1999;12(6): 1002-1008.
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1999.1002    Published online September 1, 1999.
Reevaluation of the Metabolic Essentiality of the Minerals - Review -
J. W. Spears
Essential metabolic functions have been identified for seven macrominerals (calcirum, phosprorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur), and eight microminerals ( cobalt, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc). Major functions for each of these minerals are summarized. Considerable research suggests that chromium is also essential and that it functions by facilitating insulin activity. Studies are reviewed which indicate that chromium supplementation of animal diets may: 1) increase glucose removal from blood, 2) reduce carcass fat and increase lean in nonruminants, 3) alter egg cholesterol content, and 4) enhance immunity and disease resistance in ruminants. A number of other minerals including nickel, boron, vanadium, arsenic, silicon, lithum and lead have been reported to be essential, but specific metabolic functions have not been defined for any of these elements. Limited research in poultry suggests that boron may be of practical significance in some instances.
Keywords: Minerals; Macrominerals; Microminerals; Chromium; Boron

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