Review paper Review Paper Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 1996;9(6): 615-636. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1996.615    Published online December 1, 1996.
 Strategies to reduce environmental pollution from animal manure: Principles and nutritional management - A Review - I. K. Paik, Robert Blair, Jacqueline Jacob Abstract The animal industry must be environmentally sound to ensure its long-term sustainable growth. Livestock wastes mostly manure, can be a valuable resource as well as a potential hazard to environment. The first option of manure management is developing an environmentally sound feeding program and feeds so there are less excreted nutrients that need to be managed. Once the manure is produced it can be best utilized as a fertilizer of a soil conditioner. In many countries the amount of manure that can be spread on land depends on the nutrient requirements of the crop being grown. The laws specify maximum application rates and not animal stocking rates. Farmer who reduce the N and P component of manure can release pressure on the environment without having to reduce the number of animals. There are alternative system for housing and manure treatment which generate manure that are easier to handle and have less pollutants or more economic value. Treated animal waste may also be used as a feedstuff or fuel source. Most of the options of waste management result in increased costs to implement. It is necessary to assess the economics in order to find an acceptable compromise between the increased costs and the benefit to the environment. Animal welfare is also becoming more and more of an issue and it will lead to systems where animals are kept in less confined environment. The new system will have a great impact in the waste management system in the future. Keywords: Environment; Animal; Manure; Animal Waste; Nutritional Management; Nitrogen Control

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