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Review Paper
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2001;14(3): 432-444.
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2001.432    Published online March 1, 2001.
Feeding and Management System to Reduce Environmental Pollution in Swine Production - Review -
In K. Han, J. H. Lee, X. S. Piao, Defa Li
In this manuscript, several effective feeding and management systems to reduce environmental pollution in swine production have been briefly introduced. It is logical that reducing the excretion of nutrients in manure should be the first step to reduce the environmental impact of pig production. it is evident that the excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus can be reduced when more digestible or available feedstuffs are used. Also, it is well known that proper feed processing can reduce anti nutritional factors (ANF) and improve nutrient digestibilities. Supplementation of effective feed additives can reduce excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus due to efficient feed utilization. These include enzymes (e.g., phytase), antibiotics, probiotics, organic acids and growth hormones (棺-agonists and porcine somatotropin). One of the most effective ways to reduce pollutants from swine manure is to use synthetic amino acids in feed manufacturing. Many studies showed that reduction of 2 to 4% unit (U) of dietary protein with supplemental amino acid (AA) could dramatically reduce (15 to 20%) nitrogen excretion. Regarding feeding strategies, it has been recognized that phase feeding regimen could be used to reduce nitrogen and phosphorous excretion by feeding pigs in better agreement with age and physiological state. Feeding barrows and gilts separately, known as split sex feeding, can also decrease excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus. With the increasing concerns on the negative impact of animal production systems on the environment, animal nutritionists and producers should be aware that sustainability of animal agriculture is as important as high production performance. Therefore, some feeding and management strategies described in this manuscript will help to reduce environmental pollution in swine production. Proper combination of feeding regimen and environment-friendly diet formulation through nutritional approach will be more effective to reduce nutrient excretion in swine production system compared to single approach to do so.
Keywords: Synthetic Amino Acids; Feed Additives; Nutrients Excretion; Pigs; Phase Feeding; Low Pollutant Diets

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