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https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.22.0469    [Accepted] Published online May 2, 2023.
Effects of fermentation on protein profile of coffee by-products and its relationship with internal protein structure measured by vibrational spectroscopy
T Samadi1,3  , Xin Feng3, Luciana Prates3, Siti Wajizah1  , Z Zulfahrizal2, Agus Munawar2  , Peiqiang Yu3,* 
1Animal Husbandry Department, Agricultural Faculty, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Darussalam - Banda Aceh, 23111, Indonesia
2Department of Agricultural Engineering, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Darussalam -Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia
3Department of Animal and Poultry Science, College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5A8, Canada
Correspondence:  Peiqiang Yu, Tel: +1-306-966-4132, Fax: +1-306-966-4151, Email: peiqiang.yu@usask.ca
Received: 14 December 2022   • Revised: 13 February 2023   • Accepted: 21 March 2023
To our knowledge, there is few studies on the correlation between internal structure of fermented products and nutrient delivery from by-products from coffee processing in ruminant system. The objective of this project was to use advanced mid-infrared vibrational spectroscopic technique (ATR-FT/IR) to reveal interactive correlation between protein internal structure and ruminant-relevant protein and energy metabolic profiles of by-products from coffee processing affected by added-microorganism fermentation duration.
The by-products from coffee processing were fermented using commercial fermentation product, called Saus Burger Pakan (SBP), consisting of various microorganisms: cellulolytic, lactic acid, amylolytic, proteolytic, and xylanolytic microbes, for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Protein chemical profiles, Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) CP and CHO subfractions, and ruminal degradation and intestinal digestion of protein were evaluated. The attenuated total reflectance-Ft/IR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to study protein structural features of spectra that were affected by added-microorganism fermentation duration. The molecular spectral analyses were carried using OMNIC software. Molecular spectral analysis parameters in fermented and non-fermented by-products from coffee processing included: Amide I area (AIA), Amide II (AIIA) area, Amide I heigh (AIH), Amide II height (AIIH), α-helix height (αH), β-sheet height (βH), AIA to AIIA ratio, AIH to AIIH ratio, and αH to βH ratio. The relationship between protein structure spectral profiles of by-products from coffee processing and protein related metabolic features in ruminant were also investigated.
Fermentation decreased rumen degradable protein and increased rumen undegradable protein of by-products from coffee processing (P<0.05), indicating more protein entering from rumen the small intestine for animal use. The fermentation duration significantly impacted (P<0.05) protein structure spectral features. Fermentation tended to increase (P<0.10) AIA and AIH as well as β-sheet height which all are significantly related to the protein level.
Protein structure spectral profiles of by-product form coffee processing could be utilized as potential evaluators to estimate protein related chemical profile and protein metabolic characteristics in ruminant system.
Keywords: By-product; Coffee Processing; Fermentation; Nutrient availability; Protein Molecular Structure; Vibrational Spectroscopy
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