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Anim Biosci > Volume 35(8); 2022 > Article
Ruminant Nutrition and Forage Utilization
Animal Bioscience 2022;35(8): 1162-1173.
https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0326    Published online January 4, 2022.
An investigation on fermentative profile, microbial numbers, bacterial community diversity and their predicted metabolic characteristics of Sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense Stapf.) silages
Siran Wang1  , Junfeng Li1  , Jie Zhao1  , Zhihao Dong1  , Tao Shao1,* 
Institute of Ensiling and Processing of Grass, College of Agro-Grassland Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, ChinaInstitute of Ensiling and Processing of Grass, College of Agro-Grassland Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Correspondence:  Tao Shao, Tel: +86-25-84396356, Fax: +86-025-84396356, Email: taoshaolan@163.com
Received: 18 July 2021   • Revised: 7 September 2021   • Accepted: 29 November 2021
Abstract
Objective
This study aimed to investigate the fermentation profiles, bacterial community and predicted metabolic characteristics of Sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense Stapf.) during ensiling.
Methods
First-cutting Sudangrass was harvested at the vegetative stage and ensiled in laboratory-scale silos (1 L capacity). Triplicate silos were sampled after 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 60 days of ensiling, respectively. The bacterial communities on day 3 and 60 were assessed through high-throughput sequencing technology, and 16S rRNA-gene predicted functional profiles were analyzed according to the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes using Tax4Fun.
Results
The Sudangrass silages showed good fermentation quality, indicated by higher lactic acid contents, and lower pH, butyric acid and ammonia nitrogen contents. The dominant genus Lactococcus on day 3 was replaced by Lactobacillus on day 60. The metabolism of amino acid, energy, cofactors and vitamins was restricted, and metabolism of nucleotide and carbohydrate was promoted after ensiling. The 1-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase of bacterial community seemed to play important roles in stimulating the lactic acid fermentation, and the promotion of arginine deiminase could help lactic acid bacteria to tolerate the acidic environment.
Conclusion
High-throughput sequencing technology combined with 16S rRNA genepredicted functional analyses revealed the differences during the early and late stages of Sudangrass ensiling not only for distinct bacterial community but also for specific functional metabolites. The results could provide a comprehensive insight into bacterial community and metabolic characteristics to further improve the silage quality.
Keywords: Bacterial Community; Fermentation Quality; Metabolic Characteristics; Silage; Sudangrass
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