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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0290    [Accepted] Published online February 15, 2021.
Antimicrobial activity of fermented Maillard reaction products, novel milk-derived material, made by whey protein and Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus gasseri on Clostridium perfringens
Yujin Kim1  , Sejeong Kim2  , Soomin Lee2  , Jimyeong Ha2  , Jeeyeon Lee3  , Yukyung Choi2  , Hyemin Oh1  , Yewon Lee1  , Nam-su Oh4  , Yohan Yoon1,*  , Heeyoung Lee5,* 
1Sookmyung Women’s University, Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul, 04310, Korea
2Sookmyung Women’s University, Risk Analysis Research Center, Seoul, 04310, Korea
3Dong-eui university, Department of food and nutrition, Busan, 47340, Korea
4Korea University, Department of Food and Biotechnology, Sejong-si, 30019, Korea
5Food Standard Research Center, Korea Food Research Institute, Jeollabuk-do, 55365, Korea
Correspondence:  Yohan Yoon,Email: hylee06@kfri.re.kr
Heeyoung Lee, Tel: +82-63-219-9454 , Fax: +82-63-219-9333, Email: hylee06@kfri.re.kr
Received: 1 May 2020   • Revised: 21 June 2020   • Accepted: 2 February 2021
Abstract
Objective
The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of fermented Maillard reaction products made by milk proteins (FMRPs) on Clostridium perfringens, and to elucidate antimicrobial modes of FMRPs on the bacteria, using physiological and morphological analyses.
Methods
Antimicrobial effects of FMRPs [whey protein plus galactose fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus 4B15 (Gal-4B15) or Lactobacillus gasseri 4M13 (Gal-4M13), and whey protein plus glucose fermented by L. rhamnosus 4B15 (Glc-4B15) or L. gasseri 4M13 (Glc-4M13)] on C. perfringens were tested by examining growth responses of the pathogen. Iron chelation activity analysis, propidium iodide uptake assay, and morphological analysis with field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were conducted to elucidate the modes of antimicrobial activities of FMRPs.
Results
When C. perfringens were exposed to the FMRPs, C. perfringens cell counts were decreased (p<0.05) by the all tested FMRPs; iron chelation activities by FMRPs, except for Glc-4M13. Propidium iodide uptake assay indicated that bacterial cellular damage increased in all FMRPs-treated C. perfringens, and it was observed by FE-SEM.
Conclusion
These results indicated that the FMRPs can destroy C. perfringens by iron chelation and cell membrane damage. Thus, it may be used in dairy products, and controlling intestinal C. perfringens.
Keywords: Antimicrobial Effects; Fermented Maillard Reaction Products; Clostridium perfringens
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