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Review Paper
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2000;13(3): 401-412.
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2000.401    Published online March 1, 2000.
Monogastric Animal Production Systems in Small Farms in Tropical Countries - Review -
M. Saadullah, T. Saad
Like other livestock, monogastric animals are essential components of the farming systems in the tropical countries. Pigs, chicken and ducks are by far the most important animals in the culture of the peoples of developing countries in the tropics. Traditionally these animals are raised in small farms and they are also the bulk producers of meat, eggs etc. in the tropics. In many countries the farmers of these small farms are unable to meet the requirement set by financial institution and other loan giving agencies for agricultural loan. Thus, the small farmers can get neither the opportunity to generate sufficient income to support the family nor to extend the livestock activities. The production systems are characterized by small number of animals with no or minimal inputs, low outputs and periodic destruction of animals by disease. Typically the litter size or flocks are small in number with each household containing 5-6 pigs and 7-10 poultry. Animals are owned by individual households and mostly maintained under a scavenging systems with little or no inputs for housing, feeding or health care. Because of the nature of this production system, productivity of these animals is rather low. The low level of inputs is due to a lack of capital and a low risk oriented outlook. The feed resource base for monogastric is scavenging and consists of household waste, roots and tuber, grain by-products and anything edible found in the immediate environment. Usually farmers select breeding gilts from their own female piglets or to a lesser extent, buy them from neighbors for natural mating. As regards poultry attempts have been made to increase egg and meat production by improving local poultry birds by upgrading and crossbreeding with exotic germ plasma in the tropics. Animal disease present a major constraint to animal production in the tropical region and the extent of the losses due to disease is very high.
Keywords: Monogastric Animal Production; Small Farms; Tropical Countries

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