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Review Paper
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2001;14(3): 402-413.
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2001.402    Published online March 1, 2001.
Public Health Risks: Chemical and Antibiotic Residues - Review -
M. H. Lee, H. J. Lee, P. D. Ryu
Food safety is a term broadly applied to food quality that may adversely affect human health. These include zoonotic diseases and acute and chronic effects of ingesting natural and human-made xenobiotics. There are two major areas of concern over the presence of residues of antibiotics in animal-derived foodstuffs with regard to human health. The first is allergic reactions. Some antibiotics, such as penicillins can evoke allergic reactions even though small amounts of them are ingested or exposed by parenteral routes. The second is development of antibiotic resistance in gut bacteria of human. Recently multi-resistant pneumococcal, glycopeptide-resistant enterococci and gram negative bacteria with extended-spectrum 棺-lactamases have spread all over the world, and are now a serious therapeutic problem in human. Although it is evident that drugs are required in the efficient production of meat, milk and eggs, their indiscriminate use should never be substituted for hygienic management of farm. Drug should be used only when they are required. In addition to veterinary drugs, environmental contaminants that were contaminated in feed, water and air can make residues in animal products. Mycotoxins, heavy metals, pesticides, herbicides and other chemicals derived from industries can be harmful both to animal and human health. Most of organic contaminants, such as dioxin, PCBs and DDT, and metals are persistent in environment and biological organisms and can be accumulated in fat and hard tissues. Some of them are suspected to have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic, teratogenic, immunodepressive and nervous effects. The governmental agencies concerned make efforts to prevent residue problems; approval of drugs including withdrawal times of each preparation of drugs, establishment of tolerances, guidelines regarding drug use and sanitation enforcement of livestock products. National residue program is conducted to audit the status of the chemical residues in foods. Recently HACCP has been introduced to promote food safety from farm to table by reducing hazardous biological, chemical and physical factors. Animal Production Food Safety Program, Quality Assurance Programs, Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank are para- or non-governmental activities ensuring food safety. This topic will cover classification and usage or sources of chemical residues, their adverse effects, and chemical residue status of some countries. Issues are expanded to residue detection methodologies, toxicological and pharmacokinetic backgrounds of MRL and withdrawal time establishments, and the importance of non-governmental activities with regard to reducing chemical residues in food.
Keywords: Tissue Residue; MRLs; Withdrawal Times; Risk Assessment

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