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https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.22.0251    [Accepted] Published online November 14, 2022.
Available phosphorus levels modulate gene expression related to intestinal calcium and phosphorus absorption and bone parameters differently in gilts and barrows
Julia Christiane Vötterl1  , Jutamat Klinsoda2  , Simone Koger3, Isabel Hennig-Pauka4  , Doris Verhovsek5, Barbara U. Metzler-Zebeli1,* 
1Nutritional Physiology, Institute of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Biophysics, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna 1210, Austria
2Institute of Food Research and Product Development, University of Kasetsart, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
3Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna 1210, Austria
4Field Station for Epidemiology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bakum 49456, Germany
5University Clinic of Swine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna 1210, Austria
Correspondence:  Barbara U. Metzler-Zebeli, Tel: +43-1-250774117, Fax: +43-1-250773290, Email: barbara.metzler@vetmeduni.ac.at
Received: 23 June 2022   • Revised: 13 July 2022   • Accepted: 26 September 2022
Abstract
Objective
Dietary phytase increases bioavailability of phytate-bound phosphorus (P) in pig nutrition affecting dietary calcium (Ca) to P ratio, intestinal uptake, and systemic utilization of both minerals, which may contribute to improper bone mineralization. We used phytase to assess long-term effects of two dietary available P (aP) levels using a one-phase feeding system on gene expression related to Ca and P homeostasis along the intestinal tract and in the kidney, short-chain fatty acids in stomach, cecum, and colon, serum, and bone parameters in growing gilts and barrows.
Methods
Growing pigs (37.9 ± 6.2kg) had either free access to a diet without (Con; 75 gilts and 69 barrows) or with phytase (650 phytase units; n = 72/diet) for 56 days. Samples of blood, duodenal, jejunal, ileal, cecal, and colonic mucosa and digesta, kidney, and metacarpal bones were collected from 24 pigs (6 gilts and 6 barrows per diet).
Results
Phytase decreased daily feed intake and average daily gain, whereas aP intake increased with phytase versus Con diet (p<0.05). Gilts had higher colonic expression of TRPV5, CDH1, CLDN4, ZO1, and OCLN and renal expression of TRPV5 and SLC34A3 compared to barrows (p<0.05). Phytase increased duodenal expression of TRPV5, TRPV6, CALB1, PMCA1b, CDH1, CLDN4, ZO1 and OCLN compared to Con diet (p<0.05). Furthermore, phytase increased expression of SCL34A2 in cecum and of FGF23 and CLDN4 in colon compared to Con diet (p<0.05). Alongside, phytase decreased gastric propionate, cecal valerate, and colonic caproate versus Con diet (p<0.05). Phytase reduced cortical wall thickness and index of metacarpal bones (p<0.05).
Conclusion
Gene expression results suggested an intestinal adaptation to increased dietary aP amount by increasing duodenal trans- and paracellular Ca absorption to balance the systemically available Ca and P levels, whereas no adaption of relevant gene expression in kidney occurred. Greater average daily gain in barrows related to higher feed intake.
Keywords: Bones; Intestines; Kidneys; Serum; Phosphorus; Phytases
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