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https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.22.0243    [Accepted] Published online November 13, 2022.
Demonstration of constant nitrogen and energy amounts in pig urine under acidic conditions at room temperature and determination of the minimum amount of hydrochloric acid required for nitrogen preservation in pig urine
Jongkeon Kim1  , Bokyung Hong1  , Myung Ja Lee1  , Beob Gyun Kim1,* 
Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
Correspondence:  Beob Gyun Kim, Tel: +82-2-2049-6255, Fax: +82-2-455-1044, Email: beobgyun@naver.com
Received: 23 June 2022   • Revised: 10 August 2022   • Accepted: 11 September 2022
Abstract
Objective
The objectives were to demonstrate that the nitrogen and energy in pig urine supplemented with hydrochloric acid (HCl) are not volatilized and to determine the minimum amount of HCl required for nitrogen preservation from pig urine.
Methods
In Exp. 1, urine samples of 3.0 L each with 5 different nitrogen concentrations were divided into 2 groups: 1.5 L of urine added with 1) 100 mL of distilled water or 2) 100 mL of 6 N HCl. The urine in open plastic containers was placed on a laboratory table at room temperature for 10 d. The weight, nitrogen concentration, and gross energy concentration of the urine samples were determined every 2 d. In Exp. 2, three urine samples with different nitrogen concentrations were added with different amounts of 6 N HCl to obtain varying pH values. All urine samples were placed on a laboratory table for 5 d followed by nitrogen analysis.
Results
Nitrogen amounts in urine supplemented with distilled water decreased linearly with time, whereas those supplemented with 6 N HCl remained constant. Based on the linear broken-line analysis, nitrogen was not volatilized at a pH below 5.12 (standard error = 0.71 and p<0.01). In Exp. 3, an equation for determining the amount of 6 N HCl to preserve nitrogen in pig urine was developed: additional 6 N HCl (mL) to 100 mL of urine = 3.83×nitrogen in urine (g/100 mL) +0.71 with R2 = 0.96 and p<0.01. If 62.7 g/day of nitrogen is excreted, at least 240 mL of 6 N HCl should be added to the urine collection container.
Conclusion
Nitrogen in pig urine is not volatilized at a pH below 5.12 at room temperature and the amount of 6 N HCl required for nitrogen preservation may be up to 240 mL per day for a 110 kg pig depending on urinary nitrogen excretion.
Keywords: Hydrochloric Acid; Nitrogen Preservation; Pig Urine
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