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https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.22.0072    [Accepted] Published online June 24, 2022.
Blend of essential oils can reduce diarrheal disorders and improve liver antioxidant status in weaning pigs
Maiara Ananda Grando1,*  , Vanessa Costa1  , Jansller Genova1,*  , Paulo Evaristo Rupolo1  , Liliana Bury de Azevedo1  , Leandro Batista Costa2  , Silvana Teixeira Carvalho1  , Thiago Pereira Ribeiro3  , Daniel Pigatto Monteiro4  , Paulo Levi de Oliveira Carvalho1 
1Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Marechal Cândido Rondon, Brazil
2Faculdade de Ensino Superior de São Miguel do Iguaçu, São Miguel do Iguaçu, 858700-000, Brazil
3Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Curitiba, 80215-901, Brazil
4TECTRON -Tecnologia e Inovação, Toledo, 85908-220, Brazil
Correspondence:  Maiara Ananda Grando,Email: maiara.ananda@hotmail.com
Jansller Genova, Tel: +55-45-9844-4916, Fax: +55-45-3284-7912, Email: jansllerg@gmail.com
Received: 26 February 2022   • Revised: 25 March 2022   • Accepted: 19 May 2022
The objective was to assess the effects of different doses of an essential oil blend (EOB) on growth performance, diarrhea occurrence (DO), hematological and blood biochemical profile, intestinal morphometry, morphology and microbiology, relative weight and length of organs, digestive content pH, and liver antioxidant status in weaning pigs.
A total of 135 barrows (7.09±0.29 kg body weight) were allotted randomly in a randomized complete block design based on body weight with nine replications and three animals per pen. Dietary treatments were a negative control (NC): basal diet; positive control (PC): NC plus 125 mg performance-enhancing antibiotic (enramycin 8%)/kg feed; NC plus 100 mg EOB/kg feed (EO100); NC plus 200 mg EOB/kg feed (EO200); and NC plus 400 mg EOB/kg feed (EO400). Diarrhea occurrence was monitored daily, and performance at the end of each phase.
Gain to feed ratio was greater (p<0.05) in starter II pigs fed EO400 and EO200 than in those fed EO100. Pigs fed EO400 had lower (p<0.05) DO than those fed NC and EO100 in the total period. Pre-starter II pigs fed NC had (p<0.05) lower serum total protein and plasma protein than pigs fed PC. Pigs fed EO100 showed smaller (p<0.05) mean corpuscular volume (MCV) than pigs fed EO400. Starter II pigs fed EO400 had (p<0.05) higher MCV and lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin and erythrocytes than those fed EO100. There was a higher concentration (p<0.05) of band cells for PC, similar to EO400 and EO200. Performance-enhancing antibiotic and EOB to diets increased (p<0.05) liver superoxide dismutase activity.


Adding 200 and 400 mg EOB/kg feed decreased DO and was advantageous to hematological and blood biochemical profile and liver antioxidant status without being detrimental to growth performance and gastrointestinal health in nursery pigs.
Keywords: Antimicrobial; Diarrhea Occurrence; Intestinal Histology; Phytogenic Additives; Superoxide Dismutase; Weaning Pigs

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