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Anim Biosci > Accepted Articles
https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0284    [Accepted] Published online October 29, 2021.
Performance of Holstein cows subjected to different cooling sessions during subtropical summer
Musa Bah1,3  , Khalid Javed1  , Talat Naseer Pasha2  , Muhammad Qamer Shahid1,* 
1Department of Livestock Management, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
2Department of Animal Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
3School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of The Gambia, The Gambia
Correspondence:  Muhammad Qamer Shahid, Tel: +92-3214797539, Email: qamar.shahid@uvas.edu.pk
Received: 21 June 2021   • Revised: 4 August 2021   • Accepted: 21 September 2021
This study aimed to determine the effect of different cooling sessions as a water conservation strategy on physiological, and production responses and welfare in Holstein Friesian cows during subtropical summer in Pakistan.
Twenty-one cows were subjected to three cooling sessions in a completely randomized design. The treatments were: 1) 11 hours continuous cooling with sprinklers - Control (CNT), 2) Four cooling sessions (4CS), and 3) Two cooling sessions (2CS). The CNT represented the practices of the commercial dairy farms in the area, while the other cooling sessions were used as water reduction strategies. Each cooling session lasted for 1 h with a 12 min cycle (3 min water on and 9 min off) with a sprinkler flow rate of 1.25 L/min.
The average temperature humidity index of the shed and the outside open area were 81.9 and 82.5, respectively. The results showed that both physiological responses were highest in the 2CS group followed by the CNT and the 4CS (P = 0.001). The CNT and 4CS groups had similar milk yield (P = 0.040). The 4CS group had more lying and eating times than the CNT and 2CS groups (P = 0.000). The cortisol level in the 2CS group was 2.0 and 2.2 µg/dL more than the CNT and the 4CS groups, respectively (P = 0.000).


In conclusion, the 4CS was more efficient in cooling the cows and had better welfare, as it yielded similar milk yield, and better physiological responses than the CNT despite using 90% less water.
Keywords: Dairy Cows; Heat Stress; Sprinkler Cooling Sessions; Water Usage

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