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https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0232    [Accepted] Published online August 25, 2021.
Antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli from different pig production system
Jamlong Mitchaothai1,*  , Kanokrat Srikijkasemwat1 
Department of Animal Production Technology and Fisheries, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, Thailand
Correspondence:  Jamlong Mitchaothai, Tel: +66-0-2329-8159, Fax: +66-0-2329-8159, Email: jamlong.mi@kmitl.ac.th
Received: 19 May 2021   • Revised: 10 June 2021   • Accepted: 21 July 2021
The objective of the current study was to investigate the influences of conventional and deep litter systems on antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli.
A cross-sectional study was carried out to detect antimicrobial resistance to E. coli in swine fecal samples in conventional (CO) and deep litter (DE) systems located in western and northeastern Thailand. Individual rectal swab samples were taken only from healthy pigs. A total of 215 individual and healthy pigs were randomly selected for isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility test of E. coli by the disc diffusion method. The test panel included amoxicillin (AMX), colistin (COL), doxycycline (DOX), enrofloxacin (ENR), gentamicin (GEN), kanamycin (KAN), neomycin (NEO), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT).
There were significant (p<0.05) lower resistance levels for gentamicin, neomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the DE farms compared to those in the CO farms. There was a lower number of antimicrobial resistance agents (p<0.001) in the DE farms compared to those in the CO farms. This result was consistent with those in western (p<0.01) and northeastern (p<0.01) Thailand. Overall, antibiograms of AMX-SXT and AMX-DOX-SXT were found in the CO (19.09 and 20.91%, respectively) and the DE (16.19 and 24.76%, respectively) farms. No antimicrobial resistance (5.71%) was found and AMX (13.33%) resistant pigs in the DE farms, whereas the pattern of AMX-GEN-SXT (6.36%) and AMX-DOX-GEN-SXT (11.82%) resistant pigs was found in the CO farms.


The deep litter system for pig farming was superior to conventional pig farming by lowering the resistance level of fecal E. coli to gentamicin, neomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, with decreasing the number of antimicrobial resistance agents and inducing a small proportion of pigs to be free from antimicrobial resistance.
Keywords: Antibiotic Resistance; Deep Litter Housing; Escherichia coli; Pig; Systems
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