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https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0184    [Accepted] Published online August 25, 2021.
Effects of maize straw treated with various levels of CaO and moisture on composition, structure and digestion by in vitro gas production
Mingjun Shi1  , Zhanxia Ma1  , Yujia Tian1,*  , Xuewei Zhang1,*  , Huiyong Shan2 
1Tianjin Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Breeding and Healthy Husbandry, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin 300384, China
2College of Engineering and Technology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin 300392, China
Correspondence:  Yujia Tian, Tel: +86-15810814632, Fax: +86-02223781297, Email: 15810814632@163.com
Xuewei Zhang,Email: zhangxuewei63@163.com
Received: 20 April 2021   • Revised: 16 May 2021   • Accepted: 21 July 2021
The objective of this study was to explore the effects of maize straw treated with calcium oxide (CaO) and various moisture, on the composition and molecular structure of the fiber, and gas production by fermentation in an in vitro rumen environment.
4×3 factorial treatment was used in this experiment. Maize straws were treated with 4 concentrations of CaO (0%, 3%, 5% and 7% of dry straw weight) and 3 moisture contents (40%, 50% and 60%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) were employed to measure the surface texture, secondary molecular structure of carbohydrate, and calcium (Ca) content of the maize straw, respectively. The correlation of secondary molecular structures and fiber components of maize straw were analyzed by CORR procedure of SAS 9.2. In vitro rumen fermentation was performed for 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h to measure gas production.
Overall, the moisture factor had no obvious effect on the experimental results. NDF, ADF, ADL, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased (P<0.05) with increasing concentrations of CaO treatment. Surface and secondary molecular structure of maize straw were affected by various CaO and moisture treatments. NDF had positive correlation (P<0.01) with Cell-H (H=height), Cell-A (A=area), CHO-2-H. Hemicellulose had positive correlation (P<0.01) with Lignin-H, Lignin-A, Cell-H, Cell-A. Ca content of maize straw increased as the concentration of CaO was increased (P<0.01). Gas production was highest in the group treated with 7% CaO.


CaO can adhere to the surface of the maize straw, and then improve the digestibility of the maize straw in ruminants by modifying the structure of lignocellulose and facilitating the maize straw for microbial degradation.
Keywords: In vitro; Maize Straw; Scanning Electron Microscopes; X-ray Fluorescence

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