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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.20.0567    [Accepted] Published online October 20, 2020.
Investigation of the efficacy of mycotoxin-detoxifying additive on health and growth of newly-weaned pigs under deoxynivalenol challenges
Debora Muratori Holanda1  , Sung Woo Kim1,* 
Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27695, USA
Correspondence:  Sung Woo Kim, Tel: +1-919-515-8797, Email: sungwoo_kim@ncsu.edu
Received: 15 August 2020   • Revised: 24 September 2020   • Accepted: 19 October 2020
Abstract
Objective
This study evaluated the effects of feeding diets naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol (supplemental 2 mg/kg) on health, growth, and the effects of a mycotoxin-detoxifying additive in newly-weaned pigs.
Methods
Thirty-six pigs (27 day-old) were housed individually and assigned to 3 treatments for 5 weeks: CON (diet containing minimal deoxynivalenol), MT (diet with supplemental 1.9 mg/kg of deoxynivalenol), and MT+D (MT + mycotoxin-detoxifying additive, 0.2%, MegaFix®, ICC, São Paulo, Brazil). The mycotoxin-detoxifying additive included bentonite, algae, enzymes, and yeast. Blood was taken at week 2 and 5. Jejunal tissue were taken at week 5. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS.
Results
Pigs fed MT+D tended to have decreased (p = 0.056) averaged daily feed intake during week 1 than MT. At week 2, serum aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase in MT tended to be lower (p = 0.059) than CON, whereas it was increased (p < 0.05) for MT+D than MT, indicating hepatic damages in MT and recovery in MT+D. Pigs fed MT had lower (p < 0.05) blood urea nitrogen/creatinine than CON, supporting hepatic damage. At week 5, pigs fed MT tended to have reduced (p = 0.079) glucose than CON, whereas it was increased (p < 0.05) for MT+D than MT, indicating impaired intestinal glucose absorption in MT, which was improved in MT+D. Pigs fed CON tended to have increased (p = 0.057) total glutathione in jejunum than MT, indicating oxidative stress in MT. Pigs fed MT+D had a reduced (p < 0.05) proportion of Ki-67-positive cells in jejunum than MT, indicating lower enterocyte proliferation in MT+D.
Conclusion
Feeding supplemental 1.9 mg/kg of deoxynivalenol reduced growth and debilitated hepatic health of pigs, as seen in leakage of hepatic enzymes, impaired nitrogen metabolism, and increase in oxidative stress. The mycotoxin-detoxifying enhanced hepatic health and glucose levels, and attenuated gut damage in pigs fed deoxynivalenol contaminated diets.
Keywords: Adsorbent; Deoxynivalenol; Enzyme; Gut Health; Pig; Probiotic
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