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Ruminant Nutrition and Forage Utilization
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2006;19(6): 837-844.
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2006.837    Published online March 29, 2006.
Effects of Urea Level and Sodium DL-malate in Concentrate Containing High Cassava Chip on Ruminal Fermentation Efficiency, Microbial Protein Synthesis in Lactating Dairy Cows Raised under Tropical Condition
S. Khampa, M. Wanapat*, C. Wachirapakorn, N. Nontaso, M. Wattiaux
Correspondence:  M. Wanapat,
Four, lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned according to a 2횞2 Factorial arrangement in a 4횞4 Latin square design to study supplementation of urea level (U) at 2 and 4% and sodium dl-malate (M) at 10 and 20 g/hd/d in concentrate. The treatments were as follows U2M10, U2M20, U4M10 and U4M20, respectively. The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at a ratio to milk yield at 1:2.5 and urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by urea level and sodium dl-malate. In addition, the viable bacteria were similar for amylolytic and proteolytic bacteria. Cellulolytic bacteria were significantly affected by level of sodium dl-malate especially Selenomonas ruminantium and Megasphaera elsdenii while Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens was significantly affected by level of urea supplementation. In conclusion, the combined use of concentrate containing high level of cassava chip at 75% DM with urea at 4% in concentrate and sodium dl-malate at 20 g/hd/d with UTS as a roughage could improv rumen ecology and microbial protein synthesis efficiency in lactating dairy cows.
Keywords: Urea; Sodium DL-malate; Rumen Fermentation; Cassava Chip; Urea-treated Rice Straw; Tropical Dairying

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