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https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.22.0378    [Accepted] Published online January 11, 2023.
Effects of diet and castration on fatty acid composition and volatile compounds in the meat of Korean native black goats
Jinwook Lee1  , Hye-Jin Kim2,3  , Sung-Soo Lee1  , Kwan-Woo Kim1  , Dong-Kyo Kim1  , Sang-Hoon Lee1  , Eun-Do Lee1  , Bong-Hwan Choi1  , Farouq Heidar Barido4  , Aera Jang2,* 
1Animal Genetic Resources Research Center, National Institute of Animal Science, Hamyang 50000, Korea
2Department of Applied Animal Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
3Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Center for Food and Bioconvergence, and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
4Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia
Correspondence:  Aera Jang, Tel: +82-33-250-8643, Fax: +82-33-259-5574, Email: ajang@kangwon.ac.kr
Received: 27 September 2022   • Revised: 20 October 2022   • Accepted: 27 December 2022
Abstract
Objective
This study determined the effects of dietary treatments and castration on meat quality, fatty acids (FAs) profiles, and volatile compounds in Korean native black goats (KNBG, Capra hircus coreanae), including the relationship between the population of rumen microbiomes and meat FA profiles.
Methods
Twenty-four KNBG (48.6 ± 1.4 kg) were randomly allocated to one of four treatments arranged into a 2 × 2 factorial structure. The factors were dietary forage to concentrate ratio (high forage [HF, 80:20] and low forage [LF, 20:80]), and a castration treatment (castration [CA] vs. non-castration [NCA]).
Results
Among meat quality traits, the CA group exhibited a higher percentage of crude fat and water holding capacity (P < 0.05). The profiles of the saturated fatty acid (SFA) in meat sample derived from CA KNBG showed a significantly lower percentage compared to NCA individuals, due to the lower proportion of C14:0 and C18:0. Feeding a high-forage diet to KNBG increased the formation of C18:1n7, C18:3n3, C20:1n9, C22:4n6 in meat, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles (P < 0.05). Consequently, the n6:n3 ratio declined (P < 0.05). There was an interaction between dietary treatment and castration for formation of C20:5n3 (P < 0.05), while C18:1n9, C22:6n3, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and the MUFA:SFA ratio were influenced by both diet and castration (P < 0.05). Nine volatile compounds were identified and were strongly influenced by both dietary treatments, castration (P < 0.05), and their interaction. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed distinctly different odor patterns in the NCA goats fed LF diets. Spearman correlation analysis showed a high correlation between rumen bacteria and meat PUFAs.
Conclusion
These results suggest the essential effects of the rumen microbial population for the synthesis of meat FAs and volatile compounds in KNBG meat, where dietary intake and castration also contribute substantially.
Keywords: Feeding Regimes; Goat; Intramuscular Fatty Acids; Meat Quality; Rumen Microbial Populations; Volatile Compounds


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