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Anim Biosci > Volume 35(8); 2022 > Article
Nonruminant Nutrition and Feed Processing
Animal Bioscience 2022;35(8): 1223-1234.
https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0521    Published online March 1, 2022.
Maternal nutrition altered embryonic MYOD1, MYF5, and MYF6 gene expression in genetically fat and lean lines of chickens
Feng Li1  , Chunxu Yang1  , Yingjie Xie1  , Xiang Gao1  , Yuanyuan Zhang1  , Hangyi Ning1  , Guangtao Liu1  , Zhihui Chen1  , Anshan Shan1,* 
Institute of Animal Nutrition, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
Correspondence:  Anshan Shan, Tel: +86-451-55190685, Fax: +86-451-55190685, Email: asshan@neau.edu.cn
Received: 27 November 2021   • Revised: 3 January 2022   • Accepted: 29 January 2022
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of daily feed intake during the laying period on embryonic myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1), myogenic factor 5 (MYF5), and myogenic factor 6 (MYF6) gene expression in genetically fat and lean lines of chickens.
An experiment in a 2×2 factorial design was conducted with two dietary intake levels (100% and 75% of nutrition recommendation) and two broiler chicken lines (fat and lean). Two lines of hens (n = 384 for each line) at 23th week of age were randomly divided into 4 treatments with 12 replicates of 16 birds. The experiment started at 27th week of age (5% egg rate) and ended at 54th week of age. Hatched eggs from the medium laying period were collected. Real time polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to analyse the MYOD1, MYF5, and MYF6 mRNA levels of E7, E9, E11, E13, and E15 body tissues and E17, E19, and E21 chest and thigh muscle samples.
The results indicated that there were significant effects of line, dietary intake, and interactions between them on MYOD1, MYF5, and MYF6 gene mRNA expression levels in embryonic tissues. Low daily feed intake did not change the expression trend of MYOD1 mRNA in either line, but changed the peak values, especially in lean line. Low daily feed intake altered the trend in MYF5 mRNA expression level in both lines and apparently delayed its onset. There was no apparent effect of low daily feed intake on the trends of MYF6 mRNA expression levels in either line, but it significantly changed the values on many embryonic days.


Maternal nutrient restriction affects myogenesis and is manifested in the expression of embryonic MYOD1, MYF5, and MYF6 genes. Long term selection for fat deposition in broiler chickens changes the pattern and intensity of myogenesis.
Keywords: Broiler Chicken; Embryo; Muscle Fibre; MYOD1; MYF5; MYF6
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