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Anim Biosci > Volume 35(8); 2022 > Article
Nonruminant Nutrition and Feed Processing
Animal Bioscience 2022;35(8): 1235-1249.
https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0476    Published online March 1, 2022.
Glutamate attenuates lipopolysaccharide induced intestinal barrier injury by regulating corticotropin-releasing factor pathway in weaned pigs
Junjie Guo1  , Tianzeng Liang1  , Huifu Chen1  , Xiangen Li1  , Xiaorui Ren1  , Xiuying Wang1  , Kan Xiao1  , Jiangchao Zhao2  , Huiling Zhu1,*  , Yulan Liu1,* 
1Hubei Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science,Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan430023, China
2Department of Animal Science, Division of Agriculture, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
Correspondence:  Huiling Zhu, Tel: +86-027-83956175, Fax: +86-027-83956175, Email: zhuhuiling2004@sina.com
Yulan Liu, Tel: +86-027-83956175, Fax: +86-027-83956175, Email: yulanflower@126.com
Received: 19 October 2021   • Revised: 13 November 2021   • Accepted: 29 January 2022
Abstract
Objective
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protection of glutamate (GLU) against the impairment in intestinal barrier function induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stress in weaned pigs.
Methods
Twenty-four weaned pigs were divided into four treatments containing: i) non-challenged control, ii) LPS-challenged control, iii) LPS+1.0% GLU, and iv) LPS+2.0% GLU. On day 28, pigs were treated with LPS or saline. Blood samples were collected at 0, 2, and 4 h post-injection. After blood samples collection at 4 h, all pigs were slaughtered, and spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and intestinal samples were obtained.
Results
Dietary GLU supplementation inhibited the LPS-induced oxidative stress in pigs, as demonstrated by reduced malondialdehyde level and increased glutathione level in jejunum. Diets supplemented with GLU enhanced villus height, villus height/crypt depth and claudin-1 expression, attenuated intestinal histology and ultrastructure impairment induced by LPS. Moreover, GLU supplementation reversed intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte number decrease and mast cell number increase induced by LPS stress. GLU reduced serum cortisol concentration at 4 h after LPS stress and downregulated the mRNA expression of intestinal corticotropin-releasing factor signal (corticotrophin-releasing factor [CRF], CRF receptor 1 [CRFR1], glucocorticoid receptor, tryptase, nerve growth factor, tyrosine kinase receptor A), and prevented mast cell activation. GLU upregulated the mRNA expression of intestinal transforming growth factor β.

Conclusion

These findings indicate that GLU attenuates LPS-induced intestinal mucosal barrier injury, which is associated with modulating CRF signaling pathway.
Keywords: Corticotrophin-releasing Factor (CRF) Signaling Pathway; Glutamate; Intestinal Barrier Function; Lipopolysaccharide; Weaned Pig
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