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https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0378    [Accepted] Published online January 4, 2022.
Effects of duck fat and κ-carrageenan as replacements for beef fat and pork backfat in frankfurters (R)
Dong-Min Shin1  , Jong Hyeok Yune1  , Yea Ji Kim1  , Sang Hoon Keum2  , Hyun Su Jung1  , Hyuk Cheol Kwon1, Do Hyun Kim1  , Hyejin Sohn1  , Chang Hee Jeong3  , Hong Gu Lee2  , Sung Gu Han1,* 
1Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea
2Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea
3Microbiology and Functionality Research Group, World Institute of Kimchi, Gwangju, Korea
Correspondence:  Sung Gu Han, Tel: +82-2-450-0526, Fax: +82-2-455-1044, Email: hansg@konkuk.ac.kr
Received: 24 August 2021   • Revised: 21 October 2021   • Accepted: 19 November 2021
Frankfurters are emulsion-type sausages that are widely consumed worldwide. However, some concerns regarding negative health effects have been raised because of the high fat content and the type of fat. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of duck fat and κ-carrageenan as replacements for beef fat and pork backfat in frankfurters.
The different formulations for the frankfurters were as follows: 20% beef fat (BF), 20% pork backfat (PBF), 20% duck fat (DF), 20% soybean oil (SO), 20% duck fat/1% κ-carrageenan (DFC), and 20% soybean oil/1% κ-carrageenan (SOC). Physicochemical (fatty acid profile, color, rheological properties, cooking loss, water holding capacity, emulsion stability, and texture profile analysis), oxidative stability and sensory properties of frankfurters were evaluated.
Duck fat and κ-carrageenan improved rheological properties of meat batter, and physicochemical properties (emulsion stability, cooking loss, and hardness) of frankfurters. Moreover, duck fat added-frankfurters (DF and DFC) had higher oxidative stability than that of soybean-added frankfurters (SO and SOC) during refrigerated storage for 28 days. In sensory evaluation, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability of DFC were acceptable to untrained panelists.


Our data suggested that duck fat and κ-carrageenan can replace beef fat and pork backfat in frankfurters. Duck fat and κ-carrageenan contributed to improve the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability while maintaining sensory properties. Therefore, the use of duck fat and κ-carrageenan may be a suitable alternative for replacing beef fat or pork backfat in frankfurters.
Keywords: Duck Fat; κ-Carrageenan; Rheological Property, Fat Replacement
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