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https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0304    [Accepted] Published online October 29, 2021.
Dietary 25(OH)D3 supplementation to gestating and lactating sows and their progeny affects growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood profiles and myogenic regulatory factor- related gene expression in wean-finish pigs
Santi Devi Upadhaya1  , Thau Kiong Chung2  , Yeon Jae Jung1  , In Ho Kim1,* 
1Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University, Cheonan, 31116, Korea
2DSM Nutritional Products Asia Pacific, Mapletree Business City, Singapore 117440, MapleTree Business City, Singapore
Correspondence:  In Ho Kim, Tel: +82-41-550-3652, Fax: +82-41-553-1618, Email: inhokim@dankook.ac.kr
Received: 2 July 2021   • Revised: 5 August 2021   • Accepted: 21 September 2021
This experiment investigated the effects of supplementing vitamin D3-fortified sow and progeny diets with 25(OH)D3 on growth performance, carcass characteristics, immunity, and pork meat quality.
The present study involved the assessment of supplementing the diet of sows and their progeny with or without 25 (OH)D3 in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement on the performance and production characteristics of wean-finish pigs. Forty-eight multiparous sows were assigned to a basal diet containing 2000 IU/kg vitamin D3 and supplemented without (CON) or with (TRT) 50 µg/kg 25 (OH)D3. At weaning, a total of 80 pigs each from CON and TRT sows were allocated to weaning and growing-finishing basal diets fortified with 2500 and 1750 IU/kg vitamin D3 respectively and supplemented without or with 50 µg/kg 25(OH)D3.
Sows fed 25(OH)D3-supplemented diets improved pre-weaning growth rate of nursing piglets. A significant sow and pig weaning diet effect was observed for growth rate and feed efficiency (p<0.05) during days 1 to 42 post-weaning. Pigs consuming 25(OH)D3-supplemented diets gained weight faster (p = 0.016), ate more (p = 0.044) and tended to convert feed to gain more efficiently (p = 0.088) than those fed CON diet between days 98 and 140 post-weaning. Supplemental 25(OH)D3 improved water holding capacity and reduced drip loss of pork meat, increased serum 25(OH)D3 level, produced higher interleukin-1 and lower interleukin-6 concentrations in blood circulation, downregulated MSTN and upregulated MYOD and MYF5 gene expressions (p<0.05).


Supplementing vitamin D3-fortified sow and wean-finish pig diets with 50 µg/kg 25(OH)D3 significantly improved production performance suggesting their current dietary vitamin D3 levels are insufficient. In fulfilling the total need for vitamin D, it is strongly recommended to add 50 µg/kg 25(OH)D3 “on top” to practical vitamin D3-fortified sow and wean-finish pig diets deployed under commercial conditions.
Keywords: Growing Pigs; Hydroxy Vitamin D; Myogenesis; Pork Meat Quality; Sows

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