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https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0200    [Accepted] Published online August 25, 2021.
Ruminal pH pattern, fermentation characteristics and related bacteria in response to dietary live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation in beef cattle
Xiangfei Zhang1,2  , Xianwen Dong3, Metha Wanapat4  , Ali Mujtaba Shah1  , Xiaolin Luo2, Quanhui Peng1  , Kun Kang1  , Rui Hu1  , Jiuqiang Guan2, Zhisheng Wang1,* 
1Low Carbon Breeding Cattle and Safety Production-University Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, P. R. China
2Institute of Plateau Animals, Sichuan Academy of Grassland Science, Chengdu 610097, P. R. China
3Chongqing Academy of Animal Science, Chongqing 402460, P. R. China
4Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
Correspondence:  Zhisheng Wang, Tel: +86-13308160896, Fax: +86-8352885730, Email: wangzs@sicau.edu.cn
Received: 28 April 2021   • Revised: 1 June 2021   • Accepted: 21 July 2021
Abstract
Objective
In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary live yeast supplementation on ruminal pH pattern, fermentation characteristics and associated bacteria in beef cattle.
Methods
This work comprised of in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro fermentation was conducted by incubating 0, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.125, and 0.15% active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ADY) with total mixed ration substrate to determine its dose effect. According to in vitro results, 0.1% ADY inclusion level was assigned in in vivo study for continuously monitoring ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbes. Six ruminally cannulated steers were randomly assigned to 2 treatments (Control and ADY supplementation) as two-period crossover design (30-day). Blood samples were harvested before-feeding and rumen fluid was sampled at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h post-feeding on 30 d.
Results
After 24 h in vitro fermentation, pH and gas production were increased at 0.1% ADY where ammonia nitrogen and microbial crude protein also displayed lowest and peak values, respectively. Acetate, butyrate and total volatile fatty acids concentrations heightened with increasing ADY doses and plateaued at high levels, while acetate to propionate ratio was decreased accordingly. In in vivo study, ruminal pH was increased with ADY supplementation that also elevated acetate and propionate. Conversely, ADY reduced lactate level by dampening Streptococcus bovis and inducing greater Selenomonas ruminantium and Megasphaera elsdenii populations involved in lactate utilization. The serum urea nitrogen decreased, whereas glucose, albumin and total protein concentrations were increased with ADY supplementation.

Conclusion

The results demonstrated dietary ADY improved ruminal fermentation dose-dependently. The ruminal lactate reduction through modification of lactate metabolic bacteria could be an important reason for rumen pH stabilization induced by ADY. ADY supplementation offered a complementary probiotics strategy in improving gluconeogenesis and nitrogen metabolism of beef cattle, potentially resulted from optimized rumen pH and fermentation.
Keywords: Beef Cattle; pH; Rumen Fermentation; Rumen Microorganism; Saccharomyces Cerevisiae; Serum
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