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https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0142    [Accepted] Published online August 21, 2021.
Effects of protein content and the inclusion of protein sources with different amino acid release dynamics on the nitrogen utilization of weaned piglets
Nianzhi Hu1  , Zhiwen Shen1  , Li Pan1  , Guixin Qin1  , Yuan Zhao1,*  , Nan Bao1,* 
Key Laboratory of Animal Production, Product Quality and Security, Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, P.R. China
Correspondence:  Yuan Zhao, Tel: +86-431-84533422, Fax: +86-431-84533431, Email: zhaoyuan4CL52@126.com
Nan Bao,Email: baonan203@163.com
Received: 25 March 2021   • Revised: 14 April 2021   • Accepted: 4 July 2021
Abstract
Objective
We aimed to investigate the effect of the differing amino acid (AA) release dynamics of two protein sources on the growth performance, nitrogen deposition, plasma biochemical parameters, and muscle synthesis and degradation of piglets when included in their diets at normal and low concentrations.
Methods
Forty-eight piglets (Duroc×Landrace×Large White) with initial body weight of 7.45±0.58 kg were assigned to six groups and fed one of 6 diets. The 6 dietary treatments were arranged by 3 × 2 factorial with 3 protein sources and 2 dietary protein levels. They are NCAS (a normal protein content with casein), NBlend (a normal protein content with blend of casein and corn gluten meal), NCGM (a normal protein content with corn gluten meal), LCAS (a low protein content with casein), LBlend (a low protein content with blend of casein and corn gluten meal), LCGM (a low protein content with corn gluten meal). The release dynamics of AA in these diets were determined by in vitro digestion. The digestibility, utilization and biological value of nitrogen in piglets were determined by micro Kjeldahl method. Plasma insulin was measured by ELISA kits. The protein expression of mediators of muscle synthesis and degradation was determined by western blotting.
Results
Although the consumption of a low-protein diet supplemented with crystalline AA was associated with greater nitrogen digestion and utilization (p<0.05), the final body weight, growth performance, nitrogen deposition, and phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 and eIF4E binding protein 1 in the muscle of pigs in the low-protein diet-fed groups were lower than those of the normal-protein diet-fed groups (p<0.05) because of the absence of non-essential AA. Because of the more balanced release of AA, the CAS and Blend-fed groups showed superior growth performance, final body weight and nitrogen deposition, and lower expression of muscle ring finger 1 and muscle atrophy F-box than the CGM-fed groups (p<0.05).

Conclusion

We conclude that the balanced release of AA from CAS containing diets and mixed diets could reduce muscle degradation, favor nitrogen retention, % intake and improve growth performance in pigs consuming either a normal- or low-protein diet.
Keywords: Amino Acid Release Dynamics; Dietary Protein Content; Dietary Protein Source; Piglet


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