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https://doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0244    [Accepted] Published online August 21, 2021.
Effects of feeding sodium metabisulfite-treated fruit and vegetable discards to Hanwoo heifers and cows
Won Hee Lee1  , Farhad Ahmadi1  , Young Il Kim2  , Jong Moon Park2  , Wan Sup Kwak1,* 
1Food Bio-science Major, College of Medical Life Sciences, Konkuk University, 268 Chungwon-daero, Chungju-si, Chung-Buk province 27478, Republic of Korea
2Daepoong Co. LTD, 188, Dongpyeon-ro, Dongan-gu, Anyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea
Correspondence:  Wan Sup Kwak, Tel: +82-043-840-3521, Fax: +82-043-851-8675, Email: wsk@kku.ac.kr
Received: 25 May 2021   • Revised: 23 June 2021   • Accepted: 2 July 2021
Two series of experiments were conducted to determine how the incremental levels of sodium metabisulfite (SMB)-treated fruit and vegetable discards (FVD) in diet of Hanwoo heifers and cows affect their performance and health.
In Exp. 1, 36 Hanwoo heifers were stratified by age (13.3 ± 0.83 mo) and initial body weight (305 ± 19.7 kg), and divided randomly to one of three diets containing 0, 10, or 20% SMB-treated FVD (as-fed basis). The experiment lasted 110 d, including 20 d of adaptation. In Exp. 2, 24 multiparous Hanwoo cows were divided into three groups based on age (48.2 ± 2.81 mo) and initial body condition score (2.64 ± 0.33). Cows in each block were assigned randomly to one of three diets containing 0, 11, or 22% SMB-treated FVD (as-fed basis). The experiment lasted 80 d, including a 20-d adaptation period. In both experiments, SMB-treated FVD was used as a replacement for wet brewers grain in total mixed ration (TMR).
Growing heifers exhibited no differences in their daily feed intake (6.58 ± 0.61 kg/d DM), average daily gain (0.60 ± 0.07 kg/d), and body condition score when they consumed the incremental levels of SMB-treated FVD. Although the majority of blood metabolites were unaffected by treatments, blood urea-N and ß-hydroxybutyrate levels decreased linearly as the SMB-treated FVD level increased in TMR. Similar to Exp. 1, minor differences were found in daily feed intake (8.27 ± 0.72 kg DM/d) and body condition score of Hanwoo cows. The majority of blood metabolites remained unaffected by treatments, but blood urea-N decreased as the SMB-treated FVD level in TMR increased.


Our findings suggest that SMB-treated FVD could be safely incorporated into the diet of Hanwoo heifers and cows, potentially improving N-use efficiency in the body while not impairing performance or health.
Keywords: Growth Performance; Nitrogen Efficiency; Preservative; Ruminant Feeding; Soluble Carbohydrate; Waste Recycling

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