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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.20.0521    [Accepted] Published online November 3, 2020.
The strategies for the supplementation of vitamins and trace minerals in pig production: Surveying major producers in China
Pan Yang1  , Hua Kai Wang1  , Long Xian Li1  , Yong Xi Ma1,2,* 
1State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, People’s Republic of China
2Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Feed Industry Centre, Beijing 100193, People’s Republic of China
Correspondence:  Yong Xi Ma, Tel: +86-10-6273-3588, Fax: +86-10-6273-3688, Email: mayongxi2005@163.com
Received: 22 July 2020   • Revised: 19 August 2020   • Accepted: 27 October 2020
Abstract
Objective
Adequate vitamin and trace mineral intake for pigs are important to achieve satisfactory growth performance. There are no data available on the vitamin and trace mineral intake across pig producers in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the amount of vitamin and trace minerals used in Chinese pig diets.
Methods
A 1-year survey of supplemented vitamin and trace minerals in pig diets was organized in China. A total of 69 producers were invited for the survey, which represents approximately 90% of the pig herd in China. Data were compiled by bodyweight stages to determine descriptive statistics. Nutrients were evaluated for vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, niacin, folic acid, biotin, choline, copper, iron, manganese, zinc, selenium, and iodine. Data were statistically analyzed by functions in Excel.
Results
The results indicated variation for supplemented vitamin (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, niacin, and choline) and trace minerals (copper, manganese, zinc, and iodine) in pig diets, but most vitamins and trace minerals were included at concentrations far above the total dietary requirement estimates reported by the National Research Council and the China’s Feeding Standard of Swine.
Conclusion
The levels of vitamin and trace mineral used in China’s pig industry vary widely. Adding a high concentration for vitamin and trace mineral appears to be common practice in pig diets. This investigation provides a reference for supplementation rates of the vitamins and trace minerals in the China’s pig industry.
Keywords: China; Pig Industry; Supplementation Level; Trace Mineral; Vitamin


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