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Anim Biosci > Volume 34(4); 2021 > Article
Ruminant Nutrition and Forage Utilization
Animal Bioscience 2021;34(4): 642-651.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.20.0386    Published online August 24, 2020.
Effects of using different roughages in the total mixed ration inoculated with or without coculture of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bacillus subtilis on in vitro rumen fermentation and microbial population
Michelle Miguel1  , Lovelia Mamuad1  , Sonny Ramos1  , Min Jung Ku2  , Chang Dae Jeong1  , Seon Ho Kim1  , Yong Il Cho1  , Sang Suk Lee1,* 
1Department of Animal Science and Technology, College of Bio-industry Science, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 57922, Korea
2Livestock Research Institute, Jeonnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Gangjin 59213, Korea
Correspondence:  Sang Suk Lee, Tel: +82-61-750-3237, Fax: +82-61-750-3237, Email: rumen@sunchon.ac.kr
Received: 3 June 2020   • Revised: 2 July 2020   • Accepted: 5 August 2020
This study aimed to determine the effects of different roughages in total mixed ration (TMR) inoculated with or without coculture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) on in vitro rumen fermentation and microbial population.
Three TMRs formulations composed of different forages were used and each TMR was grouped into two treatments: non-fermented TMR and fermented TMR (F-TMR) (inoculated with coculture of L. acidophilus and B. subtilis). After fermentation, the fermentation, chemical and microbial profile of the TMRs were determined. The treatments were used for in vitro rumen fermentation to determine total gas production, pH, ammonianitrogen (NH3-N), and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Microbial populations were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All data were analyzed as a 3×2 factorial arrangement design using the MIXED procedure of Statistical Analysis Systems.
Changes in the fermentation (pH, lactate, acetate, propionate, and NH3-N) and chemical composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fiber, and ash) were observed. For in vitro rumen fermentation, lower rumen pH, higher acetate, propionate, and total VFA content were observed in the F-TMR group after 24 h incubation (p<0.05). F-TMR group had higher acetate concentration compared with the non-fermented group. Total VFA was highest (p<0.05) in F-TMR containing combined forage of domestic and imported source (F-CF) and F-TMR containing Italian ryegrass silage and corn silage (F-IRS-CS) than that of TMR diet containing oat, timothy, and alfalfa hay. The microbial population was not affected by the different TMR diets.
The use of Italian ryegrass silage and corn silage, as well as the inoculation of coculture of L. acidophilus and B. subtilis, in the TMR caused changes in the pH, lactate and acetate concentrations, and chemical composition of experimental diets. In addition, F-TMR composed with Italian ryegrass silage and corn silage altered ruminal pH and VFA concentrations during in vitro rumen fermentation experiment.
Keywords: Forage; Inoculant; Italian Ryegrass Silage; Rumen; Total Mixed Ration
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