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Anim Biosci > Volume 34(4); 2021 > Article
Nonruminant Nutrition and Feed Processing
Animal Bioscience 2021;34(4): 701-713.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.20.0026    Published online June 24, 2020.
Degradation kinetics of vitamins in premixes for pig: effects of choline, high concentrations of copper and zinc, and storage time
Pan Yang1  , Hua Kai Wang1  , Min Zhu1,2  , Long Xian Li1  , Yong Xi Ma1,3,* 
1State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
2Feed Research Center, Liyuan Group, Guangxi 541004, China
3Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Feed Industry Centre, Beijing 100193, China
Correspondence:  Yong Xi Ma, Tel: +86-10-6273-3588, Fax: +86-10-6273-3688, Email: mayongxi2005@163.com
Received: 16 January 2020   • Revised: 2 March 2020   • Accepted: 29 May 2020
The present work was undertaken to evaluate the effects of storage time, choline chloride, and high concentrations of Cu and Zn on the kinetic behavior of vitamin degradation during storage in two vitamin premixes and four vitamin-trace mineral (VTM) premixes.
Two vitamin premixes (with or without 160,000 mg/kg of choline) were stored at 25°C and 60% humidity. Besides, four VTM premixes were used to evaluate the effects of choline (0 vs 40,000 mg/kg) and trace minerals (low CuSO4+ZnO vs high CuSO4+ZnO) on vitamin stability in VTM premixes stored in room, and the VTM premixes were stored in room temperature at 22°C. Subsamples from each vitamin and VTM premix were collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months. The retention of vitamin A (VA), vitamin D3 (VD3), vitamin E (VE), vitamin K3 (VK3), vitamin B1 (VB1), vitamin B2 (VB2), vitamin B3 (VB3), vitamin B5 (VB5), and vitamin B6 (VB6) in vitamin premixes and VTM premixes during storage was determined. The stability of vitamins in vitamin premixes and VTM premixes was determined and reported as the residual vitamin activity (% of initial) at each sampling point.
The effect of choline on VK3 retention was significant in vitamin premixes (p<0.05). The negative effect of storage time was significant for the retentions of VD3, VK3, VB1, VB2, VB5, and VB6 in vitamin premix (p<0.05). For VTM premixes, negative effect of storage time was significant (p<0.05) for the losses of vitamin in VTM premixes. Choline and high concentrations of Cu and Zn significantly increased VA, VK3, VB1, and VB2 loss during storage (p<0.05). The supplementation of high concentrations of Cu and Zn significantly decreased the concentrations of VD3 and VB6 (p<0.05) in VTM premixes at extended storage time.
The maximum vitamin stability was detected in vitamin and VTM premixes containing no choline or excess Cu and Zn. The results indicated that extended storage time increased degradation of vitamin in vitamin or VTM premixes. These results may provide useful information for vitamin and VTM premixes to improve the knowledge of vitamin in terms of its stability.
Keywords: Choline; Copper; Premix; Vitamin Stability; Storage Time; Zinc
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