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Ruminant Nutrition and Forage Utilization
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2011;24(4): 485-492.
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.10297    Published online February 23, 2011.
Mammary Cell Turnover under High Temperature during the Dry Period in Dairy Cows
Xiaoqing Peng, Lin Lu, Yan Li, Peishi Yan
The influence of high temperature on mammary cell turnover during the dry period is still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate mammary cell turnover and p53 protein expression in the mammary tissue under high temperature conditions. Mammary gland biopsy samples from 8 dairy cows were obtained at 7, 25, 40, and 53 d during the dry period in summer or spring (n = 4, each season). Cell cycle, cell turnover, and p53 protein expression were analyzed by flow cytometry. During the dry period in summer, the percentage of mammary epithelial cells in the G0/G1 phase was the highest, but those in the S and G2/M phases were lower. However, the proportion of cells in the different stages of the cell cycle was not significantly different among the different biopsy time points, except in the G2/M phase. Under different temperature conditions, the cells were significantly different in their apoptotic rate and proliferation index; moreover, the tendencies of these indicators to change significantly differed. In general, the samples under high temperature conditions showed significantly lower apoptotic rates and proliferation indices. Under high temperature conditions, the apoptotic rate and proliferation index were the lowest (2.17% and 3.26%, respectively) at day 40, and the highest at day 53 (3.67% and 4.61%, respectively). However, under normal temperature conditions, the values of these indicators were the lowest (7.60% and 5.54%, respectively) at day 7, and almost the highest at day 25 (12.85% and 6.47%, respectively). Moreover, p53 protein expression was significantly higher under high temperature conditions than under normal temperature conditions, except at day 25. The level of p53 protein was the lowest (13.10%) under high temperature conditions at day 25, but was the highest (26.07%) under normal temperature conditions. Our findings suggest that high temperature delayed the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and the cell turnover rate, but remarkably increased p53 protein expression. Thus, the results indicate that high temperature extends the recovery period of mammary epithelial cells.
Keywords: High Temperature; Dry Period; Cell Cycle; Apoptosis; Proliferation; Dairy Cow

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