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Animal Breeding and Genetics
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2009;22(8): 1078-1084.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2009.80599    Published online June 26, 2009.
Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone Receptor (MC1R) Genotype and Its Effects on Coat Color in Korean Jindo Dogs
Kyung-Won Hong, Sang-Wook Kim, Hong-Chul Jang, Seung-Min Yang, Young-Bin Shin, Yoon-Hye Hong, Jong-Seok Kim, Seok-Il Oh, Yoon-Ju Choi, Dong-Hee Chung, Boh-Suk Yang, Ji-Woong Lee, Bong-Hwan Choi
Abstract
The Jindo dog is a Korean natural monument and is recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. A prominent feature is the diverse coat color within the breed. To analyze the genetic basis of variation in the Jindo coat color, we sequenced the protein-coding regions of the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R). The MC1R coding sequence was determined from 154 dogs in five breeds (Jindo, Labrador Retriever, English Springer Spaniel, Belgian Malinois, and German Shepherd). To confirm the genetic structure of sampled populations, we tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and computed Fst. The sample populations did not significantly deviate from HWE. Fst was 0.02 between white and fawn Jindo dogs; this was lower than Fst between breeds. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the MC1R coding region. Among the six SNPs, five were non-synonymous (S90G, T105A, Q159P, M264V, and R306ter) and one was synonymous SNP (Y298Y). From the SNPs, we predicted four haplotypes (H1, H2, H3, and H4) for Jindo MC1R. Jindo dogs had different haplotypes corresponding to different coat colors. H1 was frequently observed in white Jindo dogs with an odds ratio of 5.03 (95% CI: 2.27-11.18, p<0.0001), whereas H2 and H4 were observed only in fawn Jindo dogs. Our findings indicate that SNP haplotype can influence coat color. Knowledge of MC1R haplotypes can help discriminate white and fawn coats in Jindo dogs. We hope this report will trigger more research into the genetics of this traditional Korean dog and will be a reference for dogs of Asian origin. Also, our results will provide a useful genetic marker for Jindo dog breeders who have selected for specific colors.
Keywords: Melanocortin 1 Receptor Gene; Korean Jindo Dog; Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms; Microsatellite Markers; Coat Color
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