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Animal Biotechnology
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2009;22(6): 871-884.
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2009.90061    Published online April 30, 2009.
Gene Expression Profiling of Liver and Mammary Tissues of Lactating Dairy Cows
M. Baik*, B. E. Etchebarne, J. Bong, M. J. VandeHaar
Correspondence:  M. Baik,
Gene expression profiling is a useful tool for identifying critical genes and pathways in metabolism. The objective of this study was to determine the major differences in the expression of genes associated with metabolism and metabolic regulation in liver and mammary tissues of lactating cows. We used the Michigan State University bovine metabolism (BMET) microarray; previously, we have designed a bovine metabolism-focused microarray containing known genes of metabolic interest using publicly available genomic internet database resources. This is a high-density array of 70mer oligonucleotides representing 2,349 bovine genes. The expression of 922 genes was different at p<0.05, and 398 genes (17%) were differentially expressed by two-fold or more with 222 higher in liver and 176 higher in mammary tissue. Gene ontology categories with a high percentage of genes more highly expressed in liver than mammary tissues included carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, glucoenogenesis, propanoate metabolism, butanoate metabolism, electron carrier and donor activity), lipid metabolism (fatty acid oxidation, chylomicron/lipid transport, bile acid metabolism, cholesterol metabolism, steroid metabolism, ketone body formation), and amino acid/nitrogen metabolism (amino acid biosynthetic process, amino acid catabolic process, urea cycle, and glutathione metabolic process). Categories with more genes highly expressed in mammary than liver tissue included amino acid and sugar transporters and MAPK, Wnt, and JAK-STAT signaling pathways. Real-time PCR analysis showed consistent results with those of microarray analysis for all 12 genes tested. In conclusion, microarray analyses clearly identified differential gene expression profiles between hepatic and mammary tissues that are consistent with the differences in metabolism of these two tissues. This study enables understanding of the molecular basis of metabolic adaptation of the liver and mammary gland during lactation in bovine species.
Keywords: Bovine; Metabolism; Microarray; Gene Expression Profiling; Liver; Mammary Gland

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