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Ruminant Nutrition and Forage Utilization
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2008;21(6): 807-817.
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2008.70518    Published online May 7, 2008.
Supplementing Maize or Soybean Hulls to Cattle Fed Rice Straw: Intake, Apparent Digestion, In situ Disappearance and Ruminal Dynamics
Tien Von Nguyen, David G. St. Louis*, Adam I. Orr, Brian J. Rude
Correspondence:  David G. St. Louis,
Steers with ad libitum access to rice straw were assigned to four diets to evaluate the effects of maize or soybean hull supplementation on intake, in vivo digestibility, ruminal pH, VFA, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) and in situ ruminal disappearance of feed nutrients by cattle consuming rice straw. Supplement treatments were: no supplement (RS); soybean meal at 0.127% BW (SBM); cracked maize at 0.415% BW plus 0.044% BW soybean meal (MAIZE); or soybean hulls at 0.415% BW plus 0.044% BW soybean meal (HULLS). The MAIZE and HULLS diets were formulated to provide approximately 4 MJ of NEm per kg of diet. Rice straw DMI was not affected (p = 0.34) by supplement. Apparent dry matter (DM) digestibility was greater (p<0.001) for MAIZE and HULLS (56.6 and 60.0%, respectively) than for steers consuming SBM or RS (51.8 and 44.4%, respectively). Apparent NDF digestibility was greater (p<0.0004) for HULLS than MAIZE (61.7 vs. 58.0%, respectively) and apparent ADF digestibility was greater (p<0.0008) for HULLS than MAIZE (61.1 vs. 49.2%, respectively). There was no difference in apparent hemicellulose digestibility (p = 0.43). Analysis of ruminal fluid collected 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post-feeding revealed ammonia-nitrogen was greatest (p<0.05) for steers on SBM and HULLS diets at 2 h (24.08 and 22.57 mg/dl, respectively) and total volatile fatty acids was greatest (p<0.05) for HULLS at 4 h (230 mM/L). In situ disappearance, measured at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24 h, indicated that SBM, MAIZE and HULLS tended to enhance the digestibility of DM and fiber components of rice straw. In situ disappearance of rice straw DM was greatest for SBM and/or HULLS from 4 to 24 h (p = 0.03). Rice straw NDF and ADF disappearance was enhanced by supplementation from 16 to 24 h (p<0.02). Rice straw DM, NDF and ADF disappearances at 24 h were similar for MAIZE and HULLS treatments. When feeding cattle rice straw diets, energy and protein-based supplements are essential. This study showed that fiber-based supplements are just as, if not more, effective as starch-based supplements in rice straw utilization. This study shows that soybean hulls, in spite of their high fiber content, are as efficient as maize for supplementing rice straw primarily because fiber in soybean hulls is highly digestible as shown by in vivo digestibility and in situ disappearance.
Keywords: Supplementation; Rice Straw; Soybean Hulls; In situ Disappearance; Ruminal Metabolism
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