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Animal Breeding and Genetics
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2004;17(10): 1383-1389.
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2004.1383    Published online January 1, 2004.
Estimation of Nutritive Value of Whole Crop Rice Silage and Its Effect on Milk Production Performance by Dairy Cows
M. R. Islam, M. Ishida, S. Ando, T. Nishida, N. Yoshida
The nutritive value and utilization of whole crop rice silage (WCRS), Hamasari, at yellow mature stage was determined by three studies. In first study, chemical composition, in vivo digestibility and metabolizable energy (ME) content of WCRS was determined by Holstein steers. WCRS contains 6.23% CP, its digestibility is 48.4% and estimated TDN is 56.4%. Its ME content was 1.91 Mcal/kg DM. Gross energy (GE) retention (% of GE intake) in steers is only 22.7% most of which was lost through feces (44.7% of GE intake). It takes 81 minutes to chew a kg of WCRS by steers. In another study, the effect of Hamasari at yellow mature stage at three stages of lactation (early, mid and late lactation) and two levels of concentrate (40 or 60%) on voluntary intake, ME content and ME intake, milk yield and composition using lactating Holstein dairy cows were investigated. Total intake increased with the concentrate level in early and mid lactation, but was similar irrespective of concentrate level in late lactation. WCRS intake was higher with 40% concentrate level than with 60% concentrate. ME intake by cows increased with the concentrate level and WCRS in early lactating cows with 40% concentrate can support only 90% of the ME requirement. Milk production in accordance with ME intake increased with the increase in concentrate level in early and mid lactating cows but was similar in late lactating cows irrespective of concentrate level. Fat and protein percent of milk in mid and late lactating cows were higher with for 60% concentrate than 40%, but reverse was in early lactating cows. Solids-not-fat was higher with for 60% concentrate than 40% concentrate. Finally in situ degradability of botanical fractions such as leaf, stem, head and whole WCRS, Hamasari at yellow mature stage was incubated from 0 to 96 h in Holstein steers to determine DM and N degradability characteristics of botanical fractions and whole WCRS. Both DM and N solubility, rate of degradation and effective degradability of leaf of silage was lower, but slowly degradable fraction was higher compared to stem and head. Solubility of DM and N of stem was higher than other fractions. The 48 h degradability, effective degradability and rate of degradation of leaf were always lower than stem or head. In conclusion, voluntary intake of silage ranged from 5 to 12 kg/d and was higher with low levels of concentrate, but milk yield was higher with high levels of concentrate. Fat corrected milk yield ranged from 19 to 37 kg per day. For consistency of milk, early lactating cows should not be allowed more than 40% whole crop rice silage in the diet, but late lactating cows may be allowed 60% whole crop rice silage.
Keywords: Whole Crop Rice; Lactation Stage; Concentrate Level; Intake; Digestibility; Milk Yield

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