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Animal Products
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 2000;13(7): 1003-1009.
https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2000.1003    Published online July 1, 2000.
Nutrient Requirements of Exercising Swamp Buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. II. Details of Work Energy of Cows and Its Relation to Heart Rate
I G. Mahardika, D. Sastradipradja, T. Sutardi, I K. Sumadi
Four young swamp buffalo cows of similar age ranging in body weight (W) between 280 to 380 kg and trained for doing physical exercise were used in two consecutive experiments, each using a latin square design, to determine energy expenditure for draught. The experiments consisted of field trials using 4 levels of work load, i.e. no work as control and loads amounting 450 to 500 Newton (N) continuous traction for respectively 1, 2 and 3 h daily for 14 consecutive days for experiment 1, and no work, traction loads equaling 5, 10 and 15% of W for 3 h daily for 14 days for experiment 2. Heart rate during rest and exercise was monitored using PE-3000 HR monitor. Cows were fed only king grass (Penisetum purpuroides) ad libitum and were subjected to balance trials. Body composition was estimated in vivo by the body density method and daily energy expenditure (EE) was calculated from ME minus RE. RE was calculated from the changes in body-protein and -fat measured before and immediately after the 14 d experimental period assuming an energy equivalent of 39.32 MJ/kg fat and 20.07 MJ/kg protein. Eexercise (EEwork짯EEresting), which was the energy spent for doing the traction during 1, 2 and 3 h was 7.13, 15.45 and 19.90 MJ, respectively. EEwork for the 1 h treatment group was 39.75 MJ/d equivalent to 1.30 times EEresting. The values for the 2 and 3 h treatment groups were 1.75 and 1.86 times resting energy requirement, respectively. Absolute efficiency of work in all exercise trials of experiment 2 was around 27.28%. The increases of daily Eexercise values were correlated to elevation of heart rate (HR) according to the equation Eexercise=(0.270 HR0.363짯1) MJ, while draught force related to heart rate according to the equation DF (N)=6.66 HR짯361.62. Blood glucose and triglyceride levels were gradually elevated with time during the course of exercise. Mean values of blood glucose were 91.7, 115.0 and 116.2 mg/dl for cows after 1, 2 and 3 h pulling loads at 15% W respectively as compared to 88.2 mg/dl prior to work. In the same order and treatment, mean blood triglyceride concentrations were 13.5, 13.3 and 14.8 mg/dl, and 11.5 mg/dl for control. For blood lactate, the values were 1.68, 1.63 and 1.66 mM, and 0.80 mM for control. Glucose was used as the major source of energy during the initial phase of exercise, but for prolonged work, fat will replace carbohydrate as the main substrate. Accumulation of lactate persisted for some time at the end of the exercise trials.
Keywords: Swamp Buffalo; Heart Rate; Glucose; Triglyceride; Exercise; Energy Expenditure

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